Chipululu cha Sonoran

Chipululu cha Sonora

El Chipululu cha Sonoran ndi gawo la malo ouma achilengedwe ku North America omwe amayambira kum'mwera chakum'mawa kwa Washington kupita ku boma la Hidalgo m'chigawo chapakati cha Mexico, komanso kuchokera pakati pa Texas kupita kugombe la nyanja. Baja California Peninsula.

M'nkhaniyi tikuuzani zonse zomwe muyenera kudziwa zokhudza chipululu cha Sonoran, makhalidwe ake ndi kufunikira kwake.

Makhalidwe apamwamba

cacti wamkulu

Khonde lowuma ili la masikweya kilomita pafupifupi miliyoni imodzi lagawidwa m’zipululu zinayi zazikulu:

  • The Great Basin.
  • Chipululu cha Mojave.
  • Chipululu cha Sonoran.
  • Chipululu cha Chihuahuan.

Chipululu Chachikulu cha Chihuahuan chimakhala ndi zigwa zingapo zomwe zimazungulira Gulf of California kapena Nyanja ya Cortez. Ngakhale ndi gulu limodzi ku United States, ikalowa ku Mexico imalowa m'chigawo chouma, chomwe chimadziwika kuti Chipululu cha Sonoran, komanso chipululu cha m'mphepete mwa nyanja chomwe chimadutsa m'mphepete mwa chilumba cha Baja California. Imadziwika kuti Baja California Desert.

Chipululu chovuta cha Sonora-Baja California, monga tikufotokozera apa, zikuphatikizapo 101,291 lalikulu kilomita m'chipululu cha Baja California ndi 223,009 kilomita lalikulu la Sonoran chipululu chenicheni. Ponseponse, 29 peresenti (93,665 masikweya kilomita) a dera lachipululu ili ali ku United States, ndi 71 peresenti yotsala (230,635 masikweya kilomita) ku Mexico. Tikuyerekeza kuti mpaka 80% ya madera achipululu amakhalabe

Poyerekeza ndi madera ozungulira, mapiri a m'chipululu cha Sonoran iwo sali okwera, pafupifupi, pafupifupi mamita 305. Mapiri otchuka kwambiri ndi mapiri a Chocolate ndi Chaquewara ku California, mapiri a Cofa ndi Haquajara ku Arizona, ndi mapiri a Pinacote ku Mexico.

Nyengo ya Chipululu cha Sonoran

Zithunzi za chipululu cha Sonoran

Derali ndi limodzi mwa mayiko ouma komanso otentha kwambiri ku North America, ndi kutentha kwa chilimwe kupitirira 38 ° C. Nyengo yachisanu ndi yofatsa, ndipo kutentha kwa Januwale kumakhala pakati pa 10ºC ndi 16ºC. Zipululu zambiri zimalandira mvula yosakwana 250 mm pachaka. Pachifukwa ichi, pafupifupi madzi onse omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito amachokera ku nthaka yapansi kapena mitsinje yosiyanasiyana, monga Colorado, Gila, Salt, Yaqui, Fuerte ndi Sinaloa, yomwe imadutsa m'chipululu kuchokera kumapiri ndi madera ozungulira.

Ulimi wothirira ndi gawo lofunika kwambiri la chuma cha chigawochi, ndipo madzi atsika kwambiri kuyambira zaka za m'ma 1960. Central Arizona Project ndi njira yayikulu yopangira madzi yomwe imapereka madzi mamiliyoni ambiri tsiku lililonse. kuchokera ku Mtsinje wa Colorado kupita kuchipululu chakummawa, makamaka madera a Phoenix ndi Tucson.

Flora

M’dera lalikululi, zomera zimadutsa m’zigawo ziŵiri, nyengo yachonde ndi nyengo yowuma, yomwe imakhala yovuta kwambiri kwa nyama zimene zimakhalamo. Mofanana ndi zipululu zonse zazikulu za kumpoto kwa America, Chipululu cha Sonoran chimadziwika ndi cacti yaikulu, mtundu wa cacti umene umapezeka kawirikawiri m'mafilimu a cowboy. Ma cacti osangalatsa awa amakula kuyambira kukula kwa chala chachikulu mpaka 15 m, alibe masamba, ali ndi minga yodzitetezera ku nyama zaludzu, ali ndi tsinde lonunkhira bwino, mizu yake yapangidwa kuti itseke madzi ambiri momwe kungathekere. Ikhoza kufika matani 10, ndi zinayi mwa zisanu kapena zambiri za madziwo. Zitha kukhalanso ndi moyo mpaka zaka 200 ndikukula pang'onopang'ono, kukula mita zaka 20 mpaka 50 zilizonse.

Pamene kuli kwakuti chipululucho chiri dziko lakutali ndipo mwachiwonekere lopanda kanthu mkati mwa chilala, pamene mvula yoyamba imagwa, moyo umawonekeranso monga paradaiso. Chilichonse chiri chodzaza ndi mtundu cacti ukuphuka mu buluu, wofiira, wachikasu ndi woyera, achule akutuluka m'mabedi owuma kuchokera m'nyanja kuti ziberekane, mbewu za dandelion zogona zomwe zimaphuka ndi kutulutsa mbewu zambiri kuti zitsimikizire kuti sizifa.

Chilichonse chimakhala dziko lobiriwira komanso lokongola. Mitengo monga palo blanco, palo iron, toote, palo verde, ndi mesquite ili ndi machitidwe ena osinthika, monga kukula m'mphepete mwa mitsinje ndi mapiri, aafupi kuposa mphepo yobwezera, ndi ali ndi matabwa olimba kwambiri ndi mizu yayitali yomwe imatha kufota. Lowani padziko lapansi mpaka mutapeza nkhokwe. Mwachitsanzo, mtengo waudzu umangophuka mizu uli waung’ono, koma ukapeza madzi umamera.

Zinyama Zam'chipululu za Sonoran

chipululu chachikulu kwambiri ku North America

Ndiponso, nyama za m’chipululu cha Sonoran zimagwiritsa ntchito njira zake zopulumukira, ndipo tizilombo monga akangaude ndi zinkhanira taphunzira kukhala momasuka m’dziko losiyanali. Mazira ena a shrimp amagona m’mayiwe owuma, ndipo akadzaza, nyamazo zimaphukira. Zodabwitsa momwe zingawonekere, pali pafupifupi 20 mitundu ya nsomba m'zipululu za United States ndi Sonora, ndipo aliyense wa iwo wapezanso njira yopulumutsira nyengo yosiyana ndi chikhalidwe chawo. Kumbali ina, palinso zokwawa zambiri monga abuluzi, iguana, abuluzi, njoka, akamba ndi njoka zomwe zimamanga nyumba zawo m'chipululu.

Mbalame ziliponso, ndipo masana ku Aguayes mukhoza kuona mpheta, mbalame zamitengo, nkhunda, zinziri ndi apaulendo akubwera kudzamwa, ndi awiri omalizirawa amatha kuwoneka akuthamanga m'tchire. Palinso mbalame zodya nyama, monga mpheta, zomwe zimadya mbalame zing’onozing’ono ndi makoswe, monga makoswe a kangaroo kapena kancito.

Nyama zina za m'chipululu cha Sonoran zimapangidwa ndi zinyama, zomwe zambiri, monga coyotes, nkhandwe, makoswe, akalulu ndi akalulu, zimakhala m'mabwinja apansi otalikirana ndi dziko lakunja, chifukwa cha kutentha ndi dzuwa, kuzizira ndi chilala. , adzaunjikira chakudya m’malo okhalamo kuti apulumuke. Komabe, cougars amakhala m'mapanga ndi m'matanthwe.

Zinyama zina za m'chipululu monga nkhosa zanyanga zazikulu ndi mbawala za bulu zomwe zimakhala pamiyala ndi mapiri osafikirikaNdi zikho zamtengo wapatali zosaka nyama chifukwa cha nyanga zake zokongola, n’chifukwa chake opha nyama popanda chilolezo amazifunafuna nthaŵi zonse ndi kuziika pafupi kutha.

Ndikukhulupirira kuti ndi chidziwitsochi mutha kuphunzira zambiri za chipululu cha Sonoran ndi mawonekedwe ake.


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