Chifuwa cha Higgs

tinthu

Nthambi ya fizikiki ya quantum, amayesa kuphunzira momwe makina a chilengedwe amachokera. Chifukwa cha izi, zakhala zotheka kupeza fayilo ya Bosgs Wamkulu. Ndi gawo loyambirira lomwe asayansi amaganiza kuti ali ndi gawo lofunikira podziwa momwe chilengedwe chidayambira. Chitsimikizo cha chilengedwe chonse ndichimodzi mwazolinga za Large Hadron Collider. Ndi waukulu kwambiri ndi wamphamvu tinthu accelerator mu dziko.

Munkhaniyi tikukuwuzani ndi chifuwa cha Higgs, mawonekedwe ake ndi kufunika kwake.

Kufunika kwa chifuwa cha Higgs

chifuwa chachikulu ndi chiyani

Kufunika kwa chifuwa cha Higgs ndikuti ndiye gawo lokhalo lomwe lingathe kufotokoza komwe chilengedwe chidayambira. Mtundu woyenera wa tinthu tating'onoting'ono timalongosola bwino tinthu tonse timene timayambira komanso momwe amalumikizirana ndi chilengedwe. Komabe, gawo lofunikira lidatsimikiziridwa, lomwe ndi lomwe lingatipatse yankho ku chiyambi cha misa. Tiyenera kukumbukira kuti ngati kupezeka kwa kuchuluka kwa chilengedwe kudachitika mosiyana ndi momwe timadziwira. Ngati electron ilibe misa Maatomu sakanakhalako ndipo zinthu sizikanakhalapo monga tikudziwira. Ngati misa, sipangakhale chemistry, biology, ndipo palibe zamoyo zomwe zikadakhalako.

Pofuna kufotokoza kufunikira kwa zonsezi, aku Britain a Peter Higgs mzaka za 60 adatinso pali makina omwe amadziwika kuti gawo la Higgs. Monga momwe photon imagwirira ntchito tikatchula maginito ndi kuwala, gawo ili limafunikira kuti pakhale tinthu tating'onoting'ono tomwe titha kupanga. Apa m'pamene kufunikira kwa tinthu timeneti chifukwa ndi komwe kumapangitsa kuti mundawo uzigwira ntchito.

Limagwirira ntchito

Bosgs Wamkulu

Tidzafotokozera pang'ono momwe makina am'munda wa Higgs amagwirira ntchito. Ndi mtundu wopitilira womwe umafalikira mlengalenga ndipo uli ndi ziwerengero zosawerengeka za mabokosi a Higgs. Ndi unyinji wa tinthu tating'onoting'ono tomwe timayambitsidwa chifukwa cha mkangano ndi munda uno, motero titha kudziwa kuti ma particles onse omwe amakangana kwambiri pamundawu amakhala ndi misa yambiri.

Pali ambiri aife omwe sitikudziwa kwenikweni chomwe chifuwa chimakhala. Kuti timvetsetse bwino malingaliro ena ovutawa, tiwunikanso chomwe chifuwa chili. Subatomic particles imagawidwa m'magulu awiri: fermions ndi bosons. Awa oyamba ali ndi udindo wopanga nkhaniyi. Nkhani yomwe tikudziwa lero imapangidwa ndi ferm. Kumbali inayi, tili ndi mabere omwe ali ndi udindo wonyamula mphamvu kapena kulumikizana kwa zinthu pakati pawo. Ndiye kuti, pamene zinthu zingagwirizane pakati pa zimzake, zimakhala ndi mphamvu ndipo zimatsimikiziridwa ndi mabosiwa.

Tikudziwa kuti zigawo za atomu ndi ma elekitironi, ma proton ndi ma neutroni. Zigawo za atomu ndi fermions, pomwe photon, gluon, ndi W ndi Z bosons ndizoyang'anira zamagetsi zamagetsi motsatana. Alinso ndi udindo wamagulu ankhondo amphamvu komanso ofooka.

Kuzindikira kwa Higgs boson

kuchuluka kwa sayansi

Chifuwa cha Higgs sichingapezeke mwachindunji. Chifukwa cha ichi ndikuti kuwonongeka kwake kumangochitika nthawi yomweyo. Ikasweka, imayambitsa tinthu tina tating'ono tomwe timadziwika bwino. Chifukwa chake titha kungowona mapazi a Higgs. Tinthu tina tomwe timatha kupezeka ku LHC. Mkati mwa tinthu ma accelerator ma proton amawombana wina ndi mnzake mwachangu pafupi kwambiri ndi kuwala. Pa liwiro ili tikudziwa kuti pali kuwombana m'malo oyenera ndipo zoyesera zazikulu zitha kuyikidwa pamenepo.

Pamene tinthu timeneti tiombana wina ndi mnzake timatulutsa mphamvu. Mphamvu yomwe imapangidwa ndi tinthu tating'onoting'ono tikamagundana, m'pamenenso mphamvuzo zimatulukira. Chifukwa chiphunzitso chokhazikitsidwa ndi Einstein sichikhazikitsa unyinji wake, koma mitundu ingapo yamitengo yotheka, pamagetsi othamanga kwambiri amafunika. Gawo lonse la fizikilo ndi gawo latsopano loti mufufuze. Kuvuta kodziwa ndikufufuza kugundana kwamtunduwu ndichinthu chokwera mtengo komanso chovuta kuchita. Komabe, cholinga chachikulu cha ma accelerator a tinthu ndi kupeza Higgs boson.

Yankho loti kaya chifuwa cha Higgs lapezekadi likufotokozedwa mu ziwerengero. Poterepa, zolakwika zofananira zikuwonetsa kuthekera kwakuti zotsatira zoyeserera zitha kumwa mwangozi m'malo mokhala zenizeni. Pachifukwa ichi, tifunika kukwaniritsa zowerengera zazikulu ndikuwonjezera mwayi wowonera. Kumbukirani kuti zoyesayesa zonsezi zimafunikira kusanthula zambiri chifukwa chojambulira tinthu chimapanga pafupifupi 300 miliyoni pamphindikati. Ndikugundana konseku, zomwe zimachitika ndizovuta kuchita.

Zopindulitsa pagulu

Ngati chifuwa cha Higgs chitha kupezeka, zitha kukhala zoyambira pagulu. Ndipo ndikuti ziziwonetsa njira pakufufuzira zochitika zina zambiri zakuthupi monga mtundu wa zinthu zakuda. Zinthu zakuda zimadziwika kuti ndi 23% ya chilengedwe chonse, koma mawonekedwe ake sadziwika kwenikweni. Ndizovuta pamachitidwe ndi zoyeserera ndi accelerator ya tinthu.

Ngati chifuwa cha Higgs sichipezeka, chikakamiza kuti chipange lingaliro lina kuti lifotokoze momwe tinthu timeneti timapezera unyinji wawo. Zonsezi zipangitsa kuti pakhale zatsopano zomwe zingatsimikizire kapena kukana chiphunzitso chatsopanochi. Kumbukirani kuti iyi ndi njira yomwe sayansi ndiyabwino. Muyenera kuyang'ana kosadziwika ndikuyesera mpaka mutapeza mayankho.

Ndikukhulupirira kuti ndi chidziwitso ichi mutha kuphunzira zambiri za Higgs boson ndi mawonekedwe ake.

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