Krebs okirikiri

Krebs okirikiri

Ma ị gụọla akwụkwọ biology n'ụlọ akwụkwọ sekọndrị, ma ọ bụ na ị na-agụ gbasara uru uru, ị nwere ike ịnụ Krebs okirikiri. Ọ bụ otu n'ime usoro mgbanwe metabolism nke iku ume cellular nke na-eme n'ime ahụ anyị. A makwaara ya site na aha nke citric acid ma bụrụkwa usoro metabolism nke na-ewere ọnọdụ na matrik mitochondrial nke mkpụrụ ndụ anụmanụ niile.

N'isiokwu a anyị ga-agwa gị ihe njirimara ndị ahụ bụ, kwụpụ otu nzọụkwụ akụkụ nke krebs okirikiri na mkpa ha n'ogo n'ozuzu.

Usoro nke iku ume cellular

mitochondria

Tupu anyị enwee ike ịkọwa ihe okirikiri krebs bụ, anyị ga-echeta etu iku ume cellular si arụ ọrụ, ebe ọ bụ na ọ dị oke mkpa. Ka anyị hụ ihe bụ usoro nke iku ume cellular. Ọ na-eme na isi ụzọ atọ:

  • Ọrịa glycolysis: ọ bụ usoro a na - esi eme ka glucose gbue na obere akụkụ. N'ime usoro a pyruvate ma ọ bụ pyruvic acid guzobere nke ga - eduga Acetyl-CoA.
  • Krebs okirikiri: Na okirikiri Krebs, Acetyl-CoA na-eme ka ọ dị mma na CO2.
  • Usoro iku ume: Imirikiti ume na-emepụta ebe a site na nnyefe nke electrons site na hydrogen. Ike a na - ebilite site na mkpochapu ihe ndị na - esonye na usoro niile gara aga.

Gịnị bụ krebs okirikiri

mmeghachi omume krebs

Kedu otu iku ume cellular si arụ ọrụ, nke a gụnyere na otu n'ime usoro nke usoro a, ka anyị hụ ihe ọ bụ. Anyị maara na ọ bụ usoro mgbagwoju anya na ọ nwere ọtụtụ ọrụ na-enyere metabolism cellular aka. E wezụga usoro a, mkpụrụ ndụ nile enweghị ike ịrụ ọrụ ndị dị mkpa maka ahụ anyị. Ihe mgbaru ọsọ kasịnụ nke okirikiri krebs bụ inwe ike ịkwalite mmebi nke ngwaahịa ikpeazụ nke metabolism nke carbohydrates, lipids na ụfọdụ amino acid.

Mgbe anyị riri nri, anyị ga-amarịrị na isi ihe na-edozi ahụ bụ carbohydrates, protein na abụba. N’aka nke ya, amino acid mejuputara protein. Ya mere, na usoro nri, krebs okirikiri dị ezigbo mkpa. Ihe niile etinyere n’ahụ site na nri na-aghọ na Acetyl-CoA na nnwere onwe nke CO2 na H2O na njikọ nke ATP.

Ekele maka njikọ a, ọ bụ ebe ike nke mkpụrụ ndụ ga - eji rụọ ọrụ ha. Anyị nwere ọtụtụ intermediates niile nkebi nke okirikiri na ha na-eji dị ka precursors na njikọ nke amino asịd na ndị ọzọ biomolecules. N'ihi usoro a, anyị nwere ike inweta ume site na ụmụ irighiri ihe ndị dị ndụ. Ike a anyị na-enweta anyị nwere ike ịnyefe ya na ụmụ irighiri ihe iji mee ihe na cellular ma anyị nwere ike ịrụ ọrụ anyị dị mkpa yana ọrụ anụ ahụ niile nke ụbọchị anyị.

N'ime krebs okirikiri anyị na-ahụ ụfọdụ kemịkalụ nke ahụ ha bụkarị oxidative na okike. All Jeremaya mere chọrọ oxygen iji ebe. Ihe omimi nke ọ bụla nwere nsonye nke ụfọdụ enzymes dị na mitochondria nke sel. Enzymes niile nwere njirimara bụ isi nke inwe ike kpata mmeghachi omume kemịkal. Mgbe anyị na-ekwu maka ịmalite mmeghachi omume anyị na-ekwu maka inwe ike ịbawanye ọnụego nke ndị na-emegharị ahụ na-agbanwe n'ime ngwaahịa.

Nzọụkwụ nke okirikiri krebs

mmeghachi omume kemịkal

Enwere ọtụtụ mmeghachi omume kemịkal n'oge okirikiri a chọrọ ikuku oxygen. Ihe mmeghachi omume nke mbụ bụ decarboxylation oxidative nke pyruvate. Na mmeghachi omume a, glucose a na-enweta site na mmebi nke hydrates nkwọcha gbanwere n'ime mkpụrụ ndụ abụọ nke pyruvic acid ma ọ bụ pyruvate. Glucose na-emebi emebi site na Glycolysis ma ghọọ isi iyi dị mkpa nke Acetyl-CoA. Ngwunye oxidative decarboxylation nke pyruvate bidoro na usoro citric acid. Omume kemịkal a kwekọrọ na mkpochapụ carbon dioxide na pyruvate nke emepụtara na ngalaba acetyl nke na-ejikọta coenzyme A. Na mmeghachi omume kemịkal a, a na-emepụta NADH dị ka molekul na-ebu ike.

Ozugbo etolitere mkpụrụ ndụ Acetyl-CoA, nke a bụ mgbe kreb okirikiri na-ewere ọnọdụ na matrik nke mitochondria. Ebumnuche nke akụkụ a bụ iji nwee ike ijikọta sistemụ oxydation cellular iji kpoo carbons niile ma nwee ike ịgbanwe ha n'ime carbon dioxide. Iji mee ka mmeghachi omume mmiri ọgwụ ndị a nile mee, ọnụnọ nke oxygen dị mkpa n'oge niile. N'ihi ya, Anyị kwuru tupu ịmalite ịkọwa krebs okirikiri mkpa nke mkpụrụ ndụ iku ume.

Ihe niile na-amalite site na enzyme citrate synthetase nke na-arụ ọrụ iji kpalite mmeghachi omume nke na-ebufe Acetyl otu na oxaloacetic acid nke na-etolite citric acid na ntọhapụ nke coenzyme A. Aha nke usoro a na-emetụta ya nguzo nke acid citric na mmeghachi ihe omimi nile nke na-ewere ebe a.

Ọkpụkpụ ozịga na mmeghachi omume decarboxylation na-eme na usoro ndị a. Mmeghachi omume ndị a na-eme ketoglutaric acid ka o mepụta. N'ime usoro ahụ, a na-ewepụta carbon dioxide ma hazie NADH na H. Mmiri ketoglutaric a na-enweta mmeghachi omume nke decarboxylation nke na-eme ka enzyme dị mgbagwoju anya nke Acetyl CoA na NAD so. Omume ndị a niile ga - eduga na succinic acid, NADH na molekul GTP nke ga - enyefe ike ya na igwe ADP nke na - emepụta ATP.

The ikpeazụ nke a okirikiri otú ahụ naanị ha na-elekwasị anya n'eziokwu bụ na succinic acid nwere ike ịgbanye n'ime mmiri na-akpụ fumaric acid. Typedị acid a maara aha fumarate. Coenzyme ya bụ ADF. Lee FADH2 ga - etolite, nke bụ ihe ọzọ na - eweta ihe ike. N'ikpeazụ, fumaric acid adịghị mma inwe ike ịmịpụta malic acid makwaara dị ka malate. Iji kwụsị okirikiri krebs, Malic acid malitere ịmalite oxidized iji jiri nwayọọ nwayọọ mepụta oxaloacetic acid. N'ụzọ dị otú a, a na-amaliteghachi usoro ahụ niile na mmeghachi omume niile anyị kpọtụrụ aha na-eme ọzọ site na mbido.

Enwere m olileanya na site na ozi a ị nwere ike ịmụtakwu banyere okirikiri krebs na njirimara ya.


Ọdịnaya nke isiokwu agbaso ụkpụrụ anyị nke ụkpụrụ nduzi. Kpesa mmejọ pịa ebe a.

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