Alps

Otu n'ime usoro ugwu amara amara nke kachasi n'ụwa na nke dị na Europe bụ Alps. Ọ bụ ugwu ugwu a na-ewere dị ka nke kachasị ogologo na Europe niile ma gbasaa site na mba 8. Ọ gafere Austria, France, Germany, Monaco, Switzerland, Slovenia, Italy na Liechtenstein. Ezigbo mba nwere osisi dị ka Austria na Switzerland. Maka nke a, akpọrọ ya Switzerland Alps. Ugwu a nwere ebe di nkpa n’obodo nke mba ma otutu omenaala sitere n’ugwu a.

N'isiokwu a anyị ga-agwa gị njirimara niile, nhazi, geology, flora na fauna nke Alps.

Isi atụmatụ

glaciers na ugwu ugwu

Okirikiri ala ndị mara mma nwere ọmarịcha ịma mma ma mezie ọdịbendị nke ọtụtụ mba. Okirikiri ala ndị a dị n'ọtụtụ ugwu ugwu na obodo dị iche iche na mpaghara ahụ aghọwo ebe ndị njem nleta na-ewu ewu. Na mpaghara ndị a, ski, ugwu na njem na nwere ihe karịrị 100 nde ndị njem nleta kwa afọ.

Ndị nke mbụ dị na mpaghara ala karịrị 800 kilomita na ndịda ọwụwa anyanwụ Europe. O sitere na mpaghara Oké Osimiri Mediterenian ruo n’ógbè Oké Osimiri Adriatic. A na-ahụta ya dị ka ntọala nke usoro ugwu ndị ọzọ dịka ugwu Carpathian na Apennine. Anyị adịghị ahụ ya n’ugwu ya niile Monte Cervino, Massif del Monte Rosa, na Dom, Mont Blanc bụ elu ya kachasị elu, mgbe Matterhorn bụ ikekwe kacha mma ghọtara ekele ya udi. Njirimara ndị a niile mere ka a na-ahụ ugwu ugwu dịka otu n’ime usoro ugwu a kacha mara amara n’ụwa.

Mmalite nke okwu maka Alps bụ ugbu a mara kpọmkwem. O nwere ike si na Celtic okwu nke pụtara ọcha ma ọ bụ ogologo. E si n’okwu Latin nweta Alps site na okwu French site na French. Mpaghara Alps niile bụ ebe ọtụtụ ndị biri site na mbubreyo Paleolithic ruo ụbọchị a. N'ime ị ga - ahụ etu otu Iso ụzọ Kraist si enweta ala na Europe yana ọtụtụ ebe obibi ndị mọnk guzobere ugwu. Werefọdụ n’ime ha ka e wuru n’ebe ndị kachasị elu ma obodo ndị ahụ tolitere gburugburu ha.

Akụkọ ihe mere eme na-agwa anyị na Alps Ewere ha dịka ihe mgbochi siri ike iji merie iji banye mpaghara ndị ọzọ na saịtị okpukpe. A na-ewerekwa ha dịka ebe dị egwu n'ihi ọtụtụ nnukwu mmiri na ebe dị omimi. Ọ dịlarị na narị afọ nke iri na itoolu mgbe teknụzụ nwere ike ịhapụ nyocha nyocha.

Geology nke Alps

Alps

Usoro ugwu nile nke ugwu ugwu Alps bu ihe kariri kilomita 1.200 ogologo ma dikwa kpam kpam na kọntinenti nke Europe. Offọdụ n'ime Ọnụ ya rịrị elu karịa mita 3.500 n'ịdị elu na o nwere ihe karịrị glaciers 1.200. Ọnọdụ snow dị ihe dị ka mita 2.400, yabụ, ọ nwere ụlọ zuru oke iji mee njem nleta snow. Ugwu ahụ na-anọgide na-adịgide adịgide na snow na-akpụ nnukwu glaciers ma na-adịgide karịa mita 3.500 na elu. A maara aha Aletsch nke kachasị ukwuu na tele glacier.

A na-ahụta ya dị ka ntọala nke usoro ugwu ndị ọzọ dị ka ugwu ugwu ugwu Alps nke Jura massif dị. Sectionsfọdụ akụkụ ugwu a gafere akụkụ ụfọdụ nke Hungary, Serbia, Albania, Croatia, Bosnia na Herzegovina, na Montenegro.

Site n’echiche ala, anyị nwere ike kewaa ugwu a na ngalaba: etiti, ọdịda anyanwụ na ọwụwa anyanwụ. Na nke ọ bụla n'ime ngalaba ndị a na ngalaba dị iche iche ma ọ bụ obere ugwu dị iche iche. N’ihe banyere ala anyị, anyị nwekwara ike ịmata ọdịiche dị n’ugwu Alps nke oke ya na mpaghara ndị ọzọ ndị ọzọ bụ ndagwurugwu nke Valtelina, Pusteria na Gailtal. Na ndịda ọdịda anyanwụ ya bụ Maritime Alps dị nso na Osimiri Mediterenian ma mepụta oke ala dị n'etiti France na Italytali. N’ezie, ọnụ ọnụ ugwu Mont Blanc bụ nke dị n’etiti France na Italytali ma nwee glacier kacha dị ogologo na France nile. Ebe ọdịda anyanwụ nke akụkụ nke ugwu a dị na ndịda ọdịda anyanwụ Switzerland.

Offọdụ osimiri ndị kachasị mkpa na kọntinent Europe, dịka Rhone, Rhine, Eno na Drava, amụrụ ma ọ bụ gafere Alps ma na-asọba n'Oké Osimiri Ojii, Mediterenian na Oké Osimiri Ugwu.

Nmebe Alps

Switzerland Alps

N'iburu ịdị ukwuu nke ugwu a, otú e si kpụọ ya so n'usoro ihe ndị dị ndụ dị mgbagwoju anya. Ndị ọkà mmụta banyere ọdịdị ala chere nke ahụ o were ihe fọrọ obere ka ọ bụrụ otu narị afọ tupu ị mata ịdị ukwuu nke ihe niile gbasara mbara igwe nke kpatara ugwu Alps. Ọ bụrụ na anyị belata ya na mbido anyị ga-ahụ na nke izizi hiwere site na nkwekọrịta nke mere n'etiti Eurasia na Africa tectonic plate. Efere teknụa abụọ a mere ka ọgba aghara nke ala ahụ na ugwu ya. Emechara usoro a na abụọ ma ọ bụ karịa na mkpuchi nke were ọtụtụ nde afọ.

A na-eme atụmatụ na ihe niile orogeny na njedebe malitere ihe dịka 300 nde afọ gara aga. Tectonic efere malitere ikukota na mbubreyo Oge Cretaceous. Mkpokọta nke efere teknụzụ abụọ a mere ka mmechi na mperi nke ọtụtụ ala ahụ dabara na oke osimiri Tethys nke dị n'etiti efere abụọ ahụ. Mmechi na subduction mere n'oge Miocene na Oligocene. Ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị enweela ike ịchọpụta ụdị okwute dị iche iche nke na-akụkọta mkpọmkpọ epeepe abụọ ahụ, ọ bụ ya mere o ji gosipụta na o nwere ujo siri ike iji bulie ala ma mepụta ugwu a. Ha achọpụtakwala ụfọdụ akụkụ nke ala ala oké osimiri oge ochie nke Tethys.

Ifuru na umu anumanu

Ebumnuche ebumnuche nke njem bụ flora na fauna ma e wezụga ịma mma nke ala. E nwere usoro okike dị iche iche dịka oke ugwu, ndagwurugwu, ahịhịa dị ogologo, oke ọhịa na ụfọdụ mkpọda ugwu. Agbaze mmiri glaciers emeela ọdọ mmiri ụfọdụ nwere mmiri dị jụụ nke na-akwado mmepe nke ahịhịa na ahịhịa.

E nwere ọtụtụ ndị iche n’ebe ndị a. Offọdụ ụdị ụdị ugwu ndị a na-enwekarị bụ nne ewu ma ọ bụ ewu ọhịa nke Alps. Enwekwara anumanu ndi ozo dika chamois, udele beard, marmot, ejula, nla, n'etiti ndi ozo. Anụ ọhịa wolf, bea na lynx na-alaghachi n'ugwu Alps mgbe a hapụsịrị ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ n'ihi egwu ụmụ mmadụ. Nke a na-aghọwanye ebe obibi ha ọzọ maka nchebe nke oghere okike ụfọdụ.

N'ime ohia anyi nwere otutu ahihia na oke ohia nwere otutu osisi pine, akpu, nku na okooko osisi ohia. A na-eme atụmatụ na e nwere ihe dị ka ụdị anụ ọhịa iri puku atọ.

Enwere m olileanya na iji ozi a ị nwere ike ịmụtakwu banyere ugwu ugwu Alps.


Ọdịnaya nke isiokwu agbaso ụkpụrụ anyị nke ụkpụrụ nduzi. Kpesa mmejọ pịa ebe a.

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