Vim li cas lub roob hluav taws tawg?

vim li cas volcano erupted thiab txaus ntshai

Volcanoes thiab eruptions yog ib yam dab tsi uas tib neeg tau ntshai tag nrho lawv lub neej. Nws feem ntau yog kev puas tsuaj heev thiab, nyob ntawm seb qhov tawg ntawm nws muaj, nws tuaj yeem rhuav tshem tag nrho lub nroog. Muaj coob tus neeg xav tsis thoob vim li cas volcano erupt.

Vim li no, peb yuav muab tsab xov xwm no qhia rau koj tias yog vim li cas lub roob hluav taws kub hnyiab, nws cov yam ntxwv zoo li cas thiab qhov txaus ntshai ntawm cov eruptions.

muaj pes tsawg leeg ntawm volcanoes

lava ntws

Txawm hais tias zoo li kev thaj yeeb nyab xeeb ntawm qhov chaw, sab hauv ntawm lub roob hluav taws yog qhov tseeb tiag tiag. Nws cov fissures yog tag nrho ntawm kub magma uas nws hlawv txhua yam nyob rau hauv nws txoj kev thiab muaj peev xwm muaj tshuaj lom gases yaj nyob rau hauv nws.

Peb xa mus rau lava pom nyob rau hauv qhov tob ntawm lub roob hluav taws li magma.. Nws hu ua lava thaum nws tawm los. Hauv seem tom ntej, peb yuav piav qhia meej tias lava yog dab tsi thiab hom lava muaj nyob.

Tsis tas li ntawd, lava yog tsim los ntawm silicate-hom minerals uas tshwm sim los ntawm lub roob hluav taws kub ntawm 900 thiab 1000 ºC. Nyob ntawm nws cov ntsiab lus silica (SiO2), peb tuaj yeem pom ob hom lava:

  • Dej Lava: Nws muaj cov ntsiab lus silica tsawg. Hom lava no tsis tshua khov thiab ntws sai.
  • Acid lava: Lawv nplua nuj nyob rau hauv silica. Lawv muaj viscosity siab thiab ntws maj mam.

Ntxiv nrog rau silica, lava kuj tseem muaj cov roj ua kom yaj. Nws feem ntau yog dej vapor thiab, rau qhov tsawg dua, carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrochloric acid (HCl), helium (He), thiab hydrogen ( H).

Tseem, koj yuav tsum paub tias cov tshuaj muaj pes tsawg leeg ntawm lava tuaj yeem sib txawv nyob ntawm hom magma thiab volcanic kev ua si, thiab dua, ntau hom lava tuaj yeem ua rau sib txawv heev, raws li peb piav qhia hauv qab no.

Vim li cas lub roob hluav taws tawg?

volcano chemistry

Invisible rau tib neeg lub qhov muag, magma accumulates nyob rau hauv lub roob hluav taws. Zoo li hluav taws kub hnyiab, nws ua rau cov pob zeb uas nyob ib puag ncig. Thaum txaus magma tsim, nws pib nrhiav txoj kev khiav thiab pib txav mus rau saum npoo.

Thaum magma nce mus rau thaj tsam siab tshaj plaws ntawm lub roob hluav taws, rhuav tshem lub pob zeb thiab tsim ib qho kev sib zog ua kom deforms hauv av. Dissolved gases nyob rau hauv magma yog tso tawm vim tawg nyob rau hauv lub pob zeb. Cov no suav nrog: dej vapor (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), thiab hydrochloric acid (HCl).

Hom volcanic eruptions

Hom eruption nyob ntawm cov duab thiab qhov loj ntawm lub roob hluav taws, nrog rau qhov sib npaug ntawm cov pa roj, kua (lava) thiab cov khoom tso tawm. Cov no yog hom pob khaus tam sim no thiab lawv cov yam ntxwv:

Hawaii tawg

Lawv yog cov yam ntxwv ntawm cov kua dej magmas ntawm cov ntsiab lus tseem ceeb (tsuas yog basaltic) thiab yog ib qho ntawm qee cov dej hiav txwv dej hiav txwv xws li Hawaiian Islands, uas lawv tau txais lawv lub npe.

Lawv yog eruptions ntawm kua heev lava thiab me ntsis roj, yog li lawv tsis tawg yooj yim heev. Volcano mansions feem ntau maj mam nqes hav thiab ntaub thaiv npog zoo li. Lub magma nce sai heev thiab ntws tshwm sim intermittently.

Qhov xwm txheej tshwm sim los ntawm cov kev tawg no yog tias lawv tuaj yeem taug kev deb ntawm ob peb kilometers thiab ua rau hluav taws kub thiab ua rau cov vaj tse uas lawv ntsib.

Lub pob zeb tawg

Lub magma feem ntau yog basaltic thiab kua, nce feem ntau maj mam thiab sib xyaw nrog cov pa roj npuas loj txog li 10 meters siab. Lawv muaj peev xwm ua tau raws sij hawm explosions.

Lawv feem ntau tsis tsim cov plumes convective, thiab cov khib nyiab pyroclastic, uas piav qhia txog kev sib tw ballistic, tau muab faib rau hauv ib puag ncig rau ob peb mais ncig ntawm cov yeeb nkab. Lawv feem ntau tsis ua phem heev, yog li lawv qhov kev phom sij tsawg, thiab lawv muaj peev xwm ua tau lava cones. Cov eruptions no tshwm sim ntawm lub roob hluav taws ntawm Aeolian Islands (Ltalis) thiab Vestmannaeyjar (Iceland).

Vulcan tawg

Cov no yog cov tawg tawg me me uas tshwm sim los ntawm kev thaiv cov kab hluav taws xob thaiv hluav taws xob thaiv los ntawm lava. Kev tawg tshwm sim txhua ob peb feeb lossis teev. Lawv muaj nyob rau hauv volcanoes uas spew magma ntawm nruab nrab muaj pes tsawg leeg.

Qhov siab ntawm cov kab yuav tsum tsis pub tshaj 10 km. Lawv feem ntau yog cov pob liab uas muaj feem tsawg.

Plinian eruptions

Lawv yog cov roj nplua nuj tawg uas, thaum yaj hauv magma, ua rau nws tawg mus rau hauv pyroclasts (pumice pob zeb thiab tshauv). Qhov kev sib xyaw ntawm cov khoom no tawm hauv lub qhov ncauj nrog tus nqi siab.

Cov pob khaus no tawg tsis tu ncua, ob leeg nyob rau hauv tus naj npawb thiab ceev. Lawv suav nrog cov viscous siliceous magmas heev. Piv txwv li, qhov tawg ntawm Mount Vesuvius hauv AD 79.

Lawv muaj kev pheej hmoo siab vim tias cov kab hluav taws kub sib npaug thiab nce mus txog qhov siab loj (txawm tias nyob rau hauv lub stratosphere) thiab ua rau cov tshauv tseem ceeb uas cuam tshuam rau lub vojvoog loj heev (txog txhiab square kilometers).

Surtseyan tawg

Lawv yog cov tawg tawg ntawm magma uas cuam tshuam nrog cov dej hiav txwv loj. Cov kev tawg no tau tsim cov Islands tuaj tshiab, xws li qhov tawg ntawm Mount Sulzi nyob rau yav qab teb Iceland, uas tsim ib lub kob tshiab xyoo 1963.

Cov kev ua ub no tshwm sim los ntawm kev tawg ncaj qha, uas tsim cov huab loj ntawm cov vapor dawb thiab cov huab dub ntawm basaltic pyroclasts.

Kev sib tsoo rau hydrovolcanic

Ntxiv nrog rau qhov hluav taws kub thiab plinian eruptions twb tau hais lawm (nyob rau hauv uas cov kev cuam tshuam ntawm dej zoo li yuav tsum tau paub tseeb hais tias), muaj lwm yam tag nrho submerged zog (uas yog, lawv muaj me ntsis kev koom tes ntawm igneous khoom) uas yog tshwm sim los ntawm qhov sawv ntawm magma.

Lawv yog cov tawg tawg tsim nyob rau hauv lub pob zeb saum toj no magma tshav kub qhov chaw, nrog kev puas tsuaj los ntawm deflagration thiab av nkos ntws.

Lub volcanic eruption yuav kav ntev npaum li cas?

Raws li peb tau pom hnub no, nws nyuaj rau kwv yees seb cov roob hluav taws yuav coj li cas. Txawm li cas los xij, txhawm rau ua kom lawv qhov kev kwv yees kom raug raws li qhov ua tau, volcanologists saib xyuas carbon dioxide thiab sulfur dioxide emissions.

Av qeeg tseem tuaj yeem qhia tau tias magma nce los ntawm lub ntiaj teb lub pob zeb.. Los ntawm kev kawm cov cim no, cov kws tshawb fawb tuaj yeem qhia tau tias kev ua volcanic tab tom ua tiav.

Raws li rau lub sij hawm ntawm qhov tawg, nws nyob ntawm tus nqi ntawm magma nws muaj, uas yog ib qho nyuaj rau paub vim hais tias cov hnab ris ntawm magma cov ntaub ntawv tej zaum yuav pub rov qab cov khoom uas nce los ntawm lub qis txheej ntawm lub ntiaj chaw. Tsuas yog cov peev txheej sab laug rau cov kws tshaj lij los kwv yees lub sijhawm ntawm kev tawg yog los kawm cov ntaub ntawv geological thiab kev tawg yav dhau los.

Yuav ua li cas tshwm sim thaum lava los ntawm lub roob hluav taws mus txog lub hiav txwv?

vim li cas volcano erupt

Cov tshuaj sib txawv yaj hauv dej hiav txwv, suav nrog sodium chloride (NaCl) thiab magnesium chloride (MgCl2). Kuj tseem nco ntsoov tias nws yog li 20 ºC.

Yog li thaum lub lava ntsib cov brine, cov tshuaj lom neeg tshwm sim tshwm sim nrog kev puas tsuaj loj. Tsis tsuas yog huab huab cua loj heev tsim, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog hydrochloric acid (HCl) thiab dej vapor (H2O). Tsis tas li ntawd, thermal shock ua rau vitrification ntawm dip casting. Los ntawm kev sib zog sai sai, kev tawg tuaj yeem tshwm sim.

Tsis tas li ntawd, cov pa roj uas tau hais los saum no tuaj yeem ua rau muaj kev phom sij rau tib neeg. Cov teebmeem tshwm sim feem ntau yog khaus ntawm daim tawv nqaij, qhov muag thiab ua pa.

Thaum kawg volcanoes yog ib feem ntawm cov toj roob hauv pes, thiab peb yuav tsum kawm nrog lawv nyob, txawm peb nyiam los tsis nyiam. Yog li ntawd, nws yog ib qho tsim nyog yuav tsum ua kom muaj kev sib sau ua ke ntawm kev paub txog qhov muaj pes tsawg leeg ntawm volcanoes thiab tshuaj lom neeg cov tshuaj tiv thaiv uas tshwm sim thaum lub sij hawm volcanic eruptions.

Hauv qhov kev nkag siab no, kev paub txog kev tshawb fawb thiab kev tsim kho thev naus laus zis yog peb cov phooj ywg. Peb yuav tsum siv cov ntaub ntawv uas lawv muab rau peb txhawm rau txheeb xyuas seb yuav ua li cas thiab vim li cas cov hluav taws kub hluav taws kub hnyiab thiab zam kom tsis txhob muaj kev phom sij uas lawv tsim tau ntau li ntau tau.


Cov ntsiab lus ntawm tsab xov xwm ua raws li peb cov ntsiab cai ntawm kev tswj hwm kev ncaj nceesCov. Tshaj tawm ib qho yuam kev nyem no.

Yog thawj tus tuaj tawm tswv yim

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Koj email chaw nyob yuav tsis tsum luam tawm.

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  1. Lub luag haujlwm rau cov ntaub ntawv: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Lub hom phiaj ntawm cov ntaub ntawv: Tswj SPAM, kev tswj xyuas tawm tswv yim.
  3. Sau raws cai: Koj kev tso cai
  4. Kev sib txuas lus ntawm cov ntaub ntawv: Cov ntaub ntawv yuav tsis raug xa mus rau lwm tus neeg thib peb tsuas yog los ntawm kev txiav txim siab raug cai.
  5. Cov ntaub ntawv khaws cia: Cov Ntaub Ntawv khaws tseg los ntawm Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Txoj Cai: Txhua lub sijhawm koj tuaj yeem txwv, rov qab thiab tshem tawm koj cov ntaub ntawv.