Keeb kwm ntawm lub sijhawm teem sijhawm

e tshuaj lom neeg

Thoob plaws hauv keeb kwm, tib neeg tau raug kos kom pom kev nkag siab txog qhov nyuaj ntawm lub ntiaj teb nyob ib puag ncig peb. Thaum xub thawj nws tau ntseeg tias txhua qhov teeb meem tuaj yeem txo qis rau plaub lub ntsiab lus: dej, av, hluav taws thiab huab cua. Txawm li cas los xij, raws li cov txheej txheem kev sim siab dhau sijhawm, nws tau pom tseeb tias qhov xwm txheej yog qhov nyuaj dua li qhov kev xav yav dhau los. Li no, yuav tsum tau npaj cov tshuaj lom neeg thiab lub sij hawm lub sij hawm. Cov keeb kwm ntawm lub sijhawm teem sijhawm Nws npog txhua yam ntawm lub hauv paus chiv keeb mus rau cov kev hloov kho uas peb muaj niaj hnub no.

Hauv tsab xov xwm no peb yuav qhia koj txog keeb kwm ntawm lub rooj sib tham thiab qhov kev hloov pauv tas li uas nws tau muaj thoob plaws hauv keeb kwm.

Lub ntsiab nta

keeb kwm ntawm lub sijhawm teem sijhawm

Lub rooj ntu ntu ua tiav ntau yam haujlwm hauv thaj chaw ntawm chemistry. Nws yog ib qho cuab yeej uas npaj thiab txiav txim tag nrho cov ntsiab lus paub raws li lawv cov qauv atomic thiab cov khoom. Ua li ntawd, Nws pab chemists kwv yees tus cwj pwm ntawm cov ntsiab lus thiab lawv cov kev cuam tshuam nrog lwm cov ntsiab lus. Tsis tas li ntawd, lub sij hawm lub sij hawm muab cov ntaub ntawv tseem ceeb txog lub cev thiab tshuaj lom neeg ntawm cov khoom, nrog rau lawv tus lej atomic, cim, thiab qhov hnyav atomic. Nws kuj yog ib qho tseem ceeb rau kev txheeb xyuas thiab npe cov ntsiab lus tshiab uas tau pom. Feem ntau, daim ntawv teev sij hawm tseem yog ib feem tseem ceeb thiab tseem ceeb ntawm txoj kev kawm chemistry.

Keeb kwm tsim los ntawm Dimitri Mendeleev, ib tug Lavxias teb sab chemist nyob rau hauv 1869, Nws yog dav suav hais tias yog qhov kev tshwm sim tseem ceeb tshaj plaws hauv thaj chaw ntawm chemistry. Lub koom haum zoo sib xws ntawm cov ntsiab lus tau txhawb nqa lub peev xwm los cia siab tias yuav tshawb pom cov ntsiab lus tshiab, thaum tseem tso cai rau kev nrhiav kev tshawb nrhiav theoretical rau hauv cov qauv tsis tau tshawb nrhiav yav dhau los.

Lub rooj ntu ntu tam sim no yog tsim los ntawm 118 lub ntsiab lus, uas tau teeb tsa ua xya kab kab rov tav hu ua "periods" thiab 18 kab ntsug hu ua "pab pawg." Dimitri Mendeleev, Lavxias teb sab chemist, yog suav hais tias yog ib qho tseem ceeb contributor rau keeb kwm ntawm chemistry. txawm tsis tau txais Nobel nqi zog. Raws li ib qho khoom plig rau nws txoj kev koom tes, cov tshuaj lom neeg nrog atomic naj npawb 101 ntawm lub sij hawm lub sij hawm tau hu ua mendelevium (Md) hauv xyoo 1955.

Keeb kwm ntawm lub sijhawm teem sijhawm

keeb kwm ntawm lub sijhawm teem sijhawm

Lub tswv yim ntawm lub sij hawm lub sij hawm yog qhov tshwm sim ntawm ib tug gradual tsub zuj zuj ntawm kev txawj ntse thiab discoveries nyob rau hauv chemistry. Xyoo 1789, Antoine Lavoisier tau luam tawm cov npe ntawm 33 lub ntsiab lus hauv nws phau ntawv Elementary Treatise of Chemistry. Xyoo 1817, Johann Döbereiner tau pom tias qee lub ntsiab lus tuaj yeem ua pawg hauv peb pawg nrog cov khoom siv tshuaj zoo sib xws.

Twb tau nyob rau xyoo 1862, Alexandre-Emile Béguyer de Chancourtois tau npaj cov ntsiab lus nyob rau hauv ib lub qhov txhab ncig ntawm lub tog raj kheej raws li lawv qhov hnyav atomic. Tom qab xyoo ntawd, John Newlands tau hais tias cov ntsiab lus rov ua dua lawv cov khoom txhua lub yim yim, zoo ib yam li suab paj nruag octave. Thaum kawg, nyob rau hauv 1869, Dimitri Mendeleev luam tawm nws version ntawm Lub Sijhawm Table, npaj cov ntsiab lus los ntawm kev nce atomic hnyav thiab tawm qhov chaw rau cov ntsiab lus tsis pom. Qhov kev npaj no tau tso cai rau Mendeleev los kwv yees cov khoom ntawm cov khoom tsis tau pom, ua rau kev tshawb pom ntawm gallium thiab germanium.

Keeb kwm thiab pib

Lub hauv paus chiv keeb ntawm zaj dab neeg no rov qab mus rau lub sijhawm qub, thaum cov kws tshawb fawb ua ntej Socratic thawj zaug piav txog plaub lub ntsiab lus tseem ceeb: dej, hluav taws, huab cua thiab lub ntiaj teb. Cov lus qhia thawj zaug no tau nthuav dav los ntawm Plato thiab Aristotle, uas tau qhia txog lub tswv yim ntawm lub thib tsib lub npe hu ua quintessence lossis ether. Lub teb ntawm alchemy, nrog nws tus thawj coj Paracelsus, tsim los ntawm cov ntsiab lus no thiab qhia cov tswv yim ntawm kev hloov pauv thiab kev xav ntawm leej faj thiab mercury. Ib lub caij tshiab, ntsev, kuj tau ntxiv rau qhov sib tov, thiab kev tshawb pom ntawm zinc ntxiv txhim kho peb txoj kev nkag siab ntawm cov khoom tseem ceeb no.

Nyob rau hauv lub xyoo pua puv 1817, cov kws tshawb fawb hauv thaj tsam ntawm chemistry pib categorize cov ntsiab lus raws li cov yam ntxwv sib koom ntawm lawv lub cev thiab tshuaj lom neeg. Thaum lub sij hawm ntawm 1829 txog XNUMX, ib tug kws tshuaj los ntawm lub teb chaws Yelemees hu ua Johan Dobereiner tau nce qib hauv kev faib cov ntsiab lus rau hauv peb pawg. Cov pab pawg no raug hu ua triads vim qhov zoo sib xws ntawm lawv cov khoom siv tshuaj. Ib tug ntawm cov triads Nws yog tsim los ntawm chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br) thiab iodine (I). Dobereiner pom tias atomic loj ntawm bromine yog strikingly zoo ib yam li qhov nruab nrab loj ntawm chlorine thiab iodine.

Hmoov tsis zoo, kev sib koom ua ke ntawm tag nrho cov ntsiab lus rau hauv triads tsis ua tiav thiab kev siv zog los tawm tswv yim kev faib tawm ntawm cov ntsiab lus tsis txaus.

Evolution ntawm keeb kwm ntawm lub periodic rooj

ancient sij hawm lub rooj

Nyob rau hauv 1862, ib tug Fabkis geologist hu ua Chancourtois nrhiav tau ib tug qauv ntawm periodicity ntawm lub ntsiab ntawm lub rooj. Ob xyoos tom qab, Chancourtois tau koom tes nrog Newlands, kws tshuaj Askiv, los nthuav qhia Txoj Cai ntawm Octaves, uas tau hais tias cov khoom rov ua dua txhua yim lub ntsiab lus. Txawm li cas los xij, Txoj cai no tau txwv rau cov ntsiab lus tsuas yog mus txog calcium. Txawm hais tias nws tsis txaus, qhov kev faib tawm no tau tsim lub hauv paus rau kev txhim kho ntawm lub sijhawm teem sijhawm.

Los ntawm nruab nrab-63th caug xyoo, cov kws tshawb fawb tau txheeb xyuas 1860 qhov sib txawv, tab sis kev pom zoo tsis muaj cov kws tshuaj txog kev faib tawm thiab kev koom tes ntawm cov ntsiab lus no. Lub Rooj Sib Tham Thoob Ntiaj Teb ntawm Chemists, muaj nyob rau hauv Karlsruhe, Lub Tebchaws Yelemees, xyoo XNUMX, txhawm rau hais cov lus nug no thiab ua pov thawj tias yog ib qho kev sib tham.

Ntawm lub rooj sib tham, Stanislao Cannizzaro, Italian chemist, kom meej meej txhais lub tswvyim ntawm atomic hnyav, uas yog txheeb ze atomic loj ntawm ib lub caij. Lawv txoj haujlwm tau txhawb peb lub rooj sib tham hluas, William Odling, Julius Lothar Meyer, thiab Dimitri Ivanovich Mendeleev, los tsim thawj lub rooj sib tham rau kev teeb tsa.

Nyob rau hauv 1869, Dimitri Mendeleev, ib tug Lavxias teb sab chemist, luam tawm nws thawj lub sij hawm ntawm lub ntsiab lus, teem nyob rau hauv ascending kev txiav txim ntawm atomic mass. Tib lub sijhawm, tus kws tshuaj German hu ua Lothar Meyer tau luam tawm nws tus kheej lub sijhawm, tab sis nrog cov ntsiab lus txiav txim los ntawm qis tshaj mus rau siab tshaj plaws atomic mass. Cov Mendeleev lub rooj tau tsim kab rov tav, nrog rau qhov chaw tshwj tseg rau cov ntsiab lus uas tseem tsis tau pom thaum lub sijhawm.

Mendeleev txoj kev koom tes rau thaj tsam ntawm chemistry yog qhov hloov pauv tiag tiag. Nws tau kwv yees thiab sab laug nyob rau hauv lub sij hawm lub sij hawm rau cov ntsiab lus uas tseem tsis tau pom, xws li gallium (1875), scandium (1879), germanium (1887), thiab technetium (1937). Xyoo 1913, tus kws tshuaj Askiv hu ua Henry Moseley tau ua X-ray kev tshawb fawb los txiav txim seb tus nqi nuclear lossis tus lej atomic ntawm txhua lub caij. Siv cov qauv no, nws muaj peev xwm categorize cov ntsiab lus nyob rau hauv ascending kev txiav txim ntawm atomic tooj, ib tug system uas tseem siv niaj hnub no.

Kuv vam tias nrog cov ntaub ntawv no koj tuaj yeem kawm paub ntau ntxiv txog keeb kwm ntawm lub sijhawm teem sijhawm thiab nws cov evolution.


Yog thawj tus tuaj tawm tswv yim

Tso koj saib

Koj email chaw nyob yuav tsis tsum luam tawm. Yuav tsum tau teb cov cim nrog *

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  1. Lub luag haujlwm rau cov ntaub ntawv: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Lub hom phiaj ntawm cov ntaub ntawv: Tswj SPAM, kev tswj xyuas tawm tswv yim.
  3. Sau raws cai: Koj kev tso cai
  4. Kev sib txuas lus ntawm cov ntaub ntawv: Cov ntaub ntawv yuav tsis raug xa mus rau lwm tus neeg thib peb tsuas yog los ntawm kev txiav txim siab raug cai.
  5. Cov ntaub ntawv khaws cia: Cov Ntaub Ntawv khaws tseg los ntawm Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Txoj Cai: Txhua lub sijhawm koj tuaj yeem txwv, rov qab thiab tshem tawm koj cov ntaub ntawv.