Cov khoom ntawm aluminium

cov khoom ntawm aluminium

Aluminium yog ib qho khoom siv hlau uas sawv cev los ntawm lub cim "Al" nyob rau hauv lub sij hawm lub sij hawm thiab yog lub thib peb feem ntau lub caij nyob rau hauv lub ntiaj teb crust: 8% ntawm lub ntiaj teb lub crust muaj txhuas nyob rau hauv ntau yam tebchaw. Muaj ntau heev cov khoom ntawm aluminium uas ua rau nws yog ib tug dav siv hlau thoob plaws lub ntiaj teb no.

Hauv tsab xov xwm no peb yuav qhia koj tias cov khoom ntawm txhuas yog dab tsi, nws qhov tseem ceeb thiab ntau ntxiv.

Qee cov keeb kwm

siv cov aluminium

Aluminium yog thawj cais nyob rau hauv 1825 los ntawm Danish physicist HC Orsted thiab niaj hnub no nws yog, nrog rau hlau, cov hlau feem ntau siv los ntawm tib neeg.. Cov khoom no kuj pom muaj nyob rau hauv feem ntau cov pob zeb tsim thiab cov kab mob nyob. Txawm li cas los xij, hauv qhov xwm txheej nws tsis pom nyob hauv nws lub xeev ntshiab, tab sis yog ib feem ntawm ntau silicates thiab minerals.

Vim nws lub teeb yuag, zoo ductility, lub neej ntev kev pab cuam thiab corrosion kuj, nws yog ib qho ntawm cov khoom siv tau zoo tshaj plaws thiab siv dav los ntawm tib neeg hauv kev lag luam. Nws yog siv nyob rau hauv ntau yam alloys los tsim ib tug loj tus naj npawb ntawm cov tais diav thiab ntim, raws li zoo raws li qhov chaw rau ntau yam machinery.

Cov khoom ntawm aluminium

hlau aluminium

Cov no yog qee cov khoom ntawm txhuas uas ua rau nws nto moo thiab siv thoob plaws ntiaj teb:

  • Lightness: Aluminium yog lub npe hu ua lub teeb heev. Nws qhov ntom ntom yog kwv yees li ib feem peb ntawm cov hlau, ua rau nws yog ib qho khoom siv zoo tshaj plaws rau cov ntawv thov uas yuav tsum muaj lub zog siab thiab tsis tshua muaj zog, xws li hauv aerospace thiab tsheb tsim.
  • Zoo hluav taws xob thiab thermal conductivity: Aluminium yog ib qho zoo heev conductor ntawm hluav taws xob thiab cua sov. Qhov no ua rau nws muaj txiaj ntsig hauv cov ntawv thov uas xav tau kev sib kis tau zoo ntawm cov hluav taws xob hluav taws xob lossis cov cua sov, xws li cov khoom siv hluav taws xob thiab cov khoom siv hluav taws xob.
  • Corrosion kuj: Aluminium muaj txheej txheej ntuj oxide ntawm nws qhov chaw uas tiv thaiv nws los ntawm corrosion. Cov txheej nyias nyias, kho tus kheej no muab nws zoo heev corrosion kuj, ua rau nws tsim nyog rau kev siv nyob rau hauv qhov chaw ntub los yog corrosive.
  • Malleability thiab yooj yim ntawm shaping: Aluminium yog malleable thiab tuaj yeem tsim ua ntau yam duab los ntawm dov, extrusion thiab forging txheej txheem. Qhov no ua rau nws muaj ntau yam khoom siv rau kev tsim cov khoom siv thiab cov khoom siv.
  • Recyclability: Aluminium yog heev recyclable. Nws tuaj yeem yaj thiab rov siv dua dua yam tsis tau poob nws cov khoom tseem ceeb, ua rau nws cov khoom siv ruaj khov thiab zoo ib puag ncig.
  • Aesthetic tsos: Aluminium muaj lub ci ci, ntxim nyiam nyiaj tiav uas ua rau nws nrov hauv kev siv zoo nkauj, xws li kev tsim khoom ntim, qhov rais thav duab thiab cov khoom siv zoo nkauj.
  • Tsawg kub tsis kam: Tsis zoo li qee cov ntaub ntawv uas dhau los ua nkig ntawm qhov kub thiab txias, txhuas tuav nws lub zog thiab malleability txawm tias qhov kub thiab txias, ua rau nws muaj txiaj ntsig zoo hauv kev siv cryogenic.

siv cov aluminium

cov khoom ntawm aluminium

Cov txheej txheem ntau tshaj plaws kom tau txais txhuas yog los ntawm bauxite, ib qho ntxhia nplua nuj nyob hauv ntiaj teb. Cov txheej txheem no yuav tsum muaj cov khoom siv hluav taws xob ntau, uas txhais tau hais tias nws yog cov txheej txheem kim, tab sis qhov tshwm sim yog cov khoom siv muaj txiaj ntsig nrog lub neej ntev (corrosion resistant) thiab cov nqi qis heev. Tag nrho cov no pab kom muaj tus nqi ruaj khov thiab dhau los ua cov khoom lag luam.

Aluminium yog lub hauv paus thiab ntau yam khoom siv hauv ntau yam ntawm tib neeg txoj kev lag luam, nrog suav tsis txheeb. Los ntawm kev tsim cov khoom siv hlau thiab cov khoom siv tshuab, ob qho tib si hauv daim ntawv ntshiab thiab cov hlau nplaum (tshwj xeeb yog cov uas ua rau lawv cov tawv tawv), mus rau kev tsim cov iav, ntau lub thawv, aluminium ntawv, tetrahedra, telescopes thiab welded Cheebtsam.

Aluminium muaj nyob thoob plaws hauv tib neeg keeb kwm nyob rau hauv daim ntawv ntawm ntsev thiab siv nyob rau hauv cov tshuaj thiab qhuav tu. Tab sis nws tsis tshwm sim raws li cov khoom ntshiab kom txog rau thaum 1825, thaum Danish physicist HC Orsted tswj kom tau txais qee cov qauv tsis huv los ntawm electrolysis. Ob xyoos tom qab, Friedrich Wöhler tau txais thawj tus qauv dawb huv.

Nws tau pib suav tias yog cov hlau muaj txiaj ntsig thiab tau nthuav tawm nrog Fabkis Crown Jewels hauv xyoo 1855, tab sis s.Nws txoj kev siv dav thiab tus nqi qis ua rau nws yog ib qho hlau.

Lwm yam khoom ntawm txhuas: reactivity, recycling thiab toxicity

Aluminium yog heev reactive, txawm hais tias nws resists corrosion los ntawm ib txheej ntawm txhuas oxide (Al2O3) uas tsim nyob ib ncig ntawm nws nyob rau hauv lub xub ntiag ntawm oxygen thiab tiv thaiv tag nrho cov hlau los ntawm corrosion. Nws tuaj yeem yooj yim diluted nrog hydrochloric acid (los yog sodium hydroxide (NaOH) thiab ntau yam acids thiab bases.

Txhuas tuaj yeem siv tau zoo kawg nkaus yam tsis hloov nws lub cev, uas muaj txiaj ntsig kev lag luam ntau dua lwm cov hlau. Kev siv hluav taws xob xav tau rau cov txheej txheem no kuj tsawg heev. (tsuas yog 5% ntawm cov txheej txheem tsim khoom qub). Qhov no recast aluminium hu ua "secondary aluminium."

Txij li thaum txhuas yog cov hlau mos thiab tsis tiv taus cov neeg kho tshuab traction, nws muaj ntau yam siv tab sis tsis pom zoo ua cov khoom siv. Nyob rau hauv qhov kev nkag siab no, nws yog feem ntau alloyed nrog lwm yam hlau los pab harden nws, xws li magnesium, manganese, tooj liab, zinc thiab silicon, thiab tej zaum txawm nrog titanium thiab chromium.

Aluminium alloys tau txheeb xyuas los ntawm series:

  • Series 1000. Yuav luag ntshiab. Kwv yees li 99% yog aluminium.
  • Series 2000. Copper alloy.
  • Series 3000. Alloys muaj manganese.
  • Series 4000. Alloys muaj silicon.
  • Series 5000. magnesium alloy.
  • Series 6000. Magnesium thiab silicon alloys.
  • Series 7000. Zinc alloy.
  • Series 8000. Alloys nrog lwm yam hlau thiab tsis yog hlau.

Contrary rau qhov tau ntseeg tau ntau xyoo lawm, aluminium tsis muaj teeb meem rau tib neeg. Nws tsis muaj tshuaj lom vim yog txhuas cov khoom noj yog absorbed me me los ntawm txoj hnyuv. Txawm li cas los xij, kev nqus cov hmoov txhuas los yog cov khoom noj uas muaj cov khoom noj tuaj yeem ua rau lub siab thiab lub raum puas, lossis cov tsos mob neurotoxic.

Kev nce qib ntawm aluminium kuj tau txuas rau qhov pib ntawm Alzheimer's disease.

Kuv vam tias nrog cov ntaub ntawv no koj tuaj yeem kawm paub ntau ntxiv txog cov khoom ntawm txhuas thiab nws cov yam ntxwv.


Yog thawj tus tuaj tawm tswv yim

Tso koj saib

Koj email chaw nyob yuav tsis tsum luam tawm. Yuav tsum tau teb cov cim nrog *

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  1. Lub luag haujlwm rau cov ntaub ntawv: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Lub hom phiaj ntawm cov ntaub ntawv: Tswj SPAM, kev tswj xyuas tawm tswv yim.
  3. Sau raws cai: Koj kev tso cai
  4. Kev sib txuas lus ntawm cov ntaub ntawv: Cov ntaub ntawv yuav tsis raug xa mus rau lwm tus neeg thib peb tsuas yog los ntawm kev txiav txim siab raug cai.
  5. Cov ntaub ntawv khaws cia: Cov Ntaub Ntawv khaws tseg los ntawm Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Txoj Cai: Txhua lub sijhawm koj tuaj yeem txwv, rov qab thiab tshem tawm koj cov ntaub ntawv.