ʻO Rutherford

ernest rutherford

Ma waena o nā ʻepekema nāna i hāʻawi nui i ka ʻepekema i nā kenekulia i hala aku nei ʻO Rutherford. ʻO Lord Ernest Rutherford kona inoa piha a hānau ʻia ʻo ia ma ʻAukake 30, 1871. He physicist a he mea kemika Pelekane ʻo ia i hāʻawi nui i ka honua o ka ʻepekema. Ua hānau ʻia ʻo ia ma Nelson, Nūhōlani. ʻO kekahi o kāna mau mea nui i ka ʻepekema ʻo ia ke ʻano hoʻohālikelike a Rutherford.

Ma kēia ʻatikala e haʻi aku mākou iā ʻoe i nā mea āpau āu e ʻike ai e pili ana i ko Rutherford ola a me kāna moʻomeheu.

ʻO Rutherford biography

rutherford

He keiki ʻo ia na Martha Thompson lāua ʻo James Rutherford. He mahiʻai Skotish ka makuakāne a me ka mīkini a ʻo kona makuahine he kumu Pelekane. ʻO ia ka hā o nā kaikaina he ʻumikūmākahi a makemake mau kona mau mākua e hāʻawi i kā lākou keiki i ke aʻo maikaʻi loa. Ma ke kula ua hauʻoli nui ke kumu ma o ka lilo ʻana i haumāna haumana. ʻAe kēia iā Ernest Hiki iaʻu ke komo i ke koleke ʻo Nelson. He kula nui ia me kahi ahu hoʻēmi nui aʻe no nā poʻe loea he nui. Ua hiki iā ia ke hoʻomohala i nā ʻano maikaʻi loa no ke kinipōpō nāna i hoʻohanohano iā ia i kāna kula.

I kona makahiki hope loa ua koho mua ʻo ia i nā kumuhana āpau a ua hiki ke komo i ke koleke ʻo Canterbury. Ma hope i ke kulanui ua komo ʻo ia i nā ʻano ʻokoʻa ʻepekema a me nā kalapu noʻonoʻo akā ʻaʻole i haʻalele i kāna mau hana kinipōpō. He mau makahiki ma hope mai ua hoʻonui ʻo ia i kāna aʻo ʻana i ka makemakika mahalo i kahi haumana i loaʻa ma ke Kulanui o Nūhōlani. Ma hope ua kū ʻo ia i waho no kāna hoihoi a me kona hiki ke hoʻoponopono i nā pilikia kemika a me nā helu helu. No laila, hiki iā ia ke lilo i haumāna nui ma Cambridge.

Nā hoʻokolokolo mua

kemika a me nā hoʻokolohua physics

Hoʻomaka ka hoʻokolokolo mua ʻana a Rutherford e hōʻike i ka hiki ke hoʻoulu ʻia ka hao ma o nā alapine kiʻekiʻe. ʻO kāna mau hopena kālaiʻike maikaʻi i ʻae iā ia e hoʻomau me nā noiʻi a me nā noiʻi ʻokoʻa no nā makahiki. Ma Ke Keʻena Laboratory ʻo Cambridge Cavendish ua hiki ke hoʻokō i kāna mau hana ma lalo o ke alakaʻi a ka mea ʻike i ka electron Joseph John Thompson. Ua hoʻomaka ʻia nā hana mai ka makahiki 1895.

Ma mua o ka haʻalele ʻana e hana i ka hanana o nā noiʻi, ua hoʻopalau ʻo ia iā Mary Newton. Ma hope o kekahi mau makahiki a mahalo i kāna hana ua koho ʻia ʻo ia i polopeka ma ke Kulanui ʻo McGill ma Montreal. Ma Kanada kēia. I kekahi mau makahiki ma hope mai, i kona hoʻi ʻana i ka United Kingdom, ua hui pū ʻo ia i kahi limahana aʻo ma ke Kulanui o Manchester. Ma aneʻi ʻo ia i hoʻomaka ai i ke aʻo ʻana i nā papa physics hoʻokolohua. I ka hopena Ua iho ʻo Thompson i lalo ma ke ʻano he alakaʻi o ka hale hōʻikeʻike Cavendish ma ke Kulanui ʻo Cambridge a ua pani ʻo Rutherford iā ia.

ʻO kekahi o nā māmala ʻōlelo poʻokela loa o kēia ʻepekema penei:

"Inā makemake kāu hoʻokolohua i nā helu helu, pono e hana i kahi hoʻokolohua ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi." Ernest Rutherford

Nā mea i loaʻa iā Rutherford

hoʻohālikelike ʻĀtoma

I 1896 ua ʻike ʻia ka radioactivity a ua hoʻokumu ʻia kēia ʻike i kēia mea ʻepekema. No kēia kumu, ua hoʻomaka ʻo ia e noiʻi a hoʻokō i ka noiʻi ma o ka hala ʻana o ka manawa a me ka hoʻāʻo ʻana e ʻike i nā mea nui o ka pāhawewe. Ua hōʻike ʻo ia i nā ʻāpana alpha he helium nuclei a kāhāhā ka poʻe āpau i ka ʻepekema me ka hoʻokumu ʻana i ke kumumanaʻo o ke ʻano atomic. Ma laila kahi e hele mai ai ko Rutherford's atomic model. Ma ke ʻano he makana, ua koho ʻia ʻo ia i lālā o ka Royal Society ma 1903 a ma hope pelekikena.

Ua wehewehe ʻia kēia hoʻohālikelike atomika i ka 1911 a ma hope polished ʻia e Niels Bohr. E nānā pehea nā alakaʻi nui o ka hoʻohālikelike atomic a Rutherford:

  • Nā ʻāpana i loaʻa ka uku maikaʻi ma loko o kahi atoma Hoʻonohonoho ʻia lākou i kahi liʻiliʻi loa inā mākou e hoʻohālikelike iā ia me ka nui o ka nui i ʻōlelo ʻia ʻtoma.
  • ʻAneʻane ka nui o ka nui i loaʻa i kahi atoma i loko o kēlā leo liʻiliʻi i ʻōlelo ʻia. Ua kapa ʻia kēia nuipa a loko i ka nui.
  • ʻO nā uila i loaʻa nā koina maikaʻi ʻole ʻike lākou i ke kaʻapuni ʻana i ka nucleus.
  • Ke hoʻohuli nei nā uila i nā wikiwiki kiʻekiʻe ke puni lākou i ka nucleus a hana lākou pēlā i nā ala pōʻai. Ua kapa ʻia kēia mau ala hele poepoe. Ma hope wau ʻike ʻia lākou ma ke ʻano he orbitals.
  • ʻO kēlā mau electrons i hoʻopiʻi ʻia me ka maikaʻi ʻole a me ka nukleus o ka atoma i hoʻopiʻi pono ʻia e hoʻopaʻa mau ʻia me ka mahalo i ka mana uʻi uila.

Hōʻike ʻia kēia mau mea āpau i ka hoʻokolohua a ʻae ʻia e hoʻokumu i kahi ʻūlū Dimension no nā mea hoʻolōʻihi maoli o ka atomic nucleus. Ua hana ʻo Ernest i ke kumumanaʻo e pili ana i ka radioactivity maoli i pili i nā hoʻololi kūlohelohe o nā mea. Inā ua noho ʻo ia me kahi mea hana i ka counter radiation mahalo i kāna hana i ke kahua o ka physics atomic. Penei, mahalo ʻia ʻo ia me kekahi o nā mākua o kēia aʻo.

ʻO ka makana Nobel i ke kemika

He kōkua nui nā kōkua ma ka ʻepekema i ke Kaua Honua Mua. A hiki hiki ke hoʻokō i nā ʻano haʻawina like ʻole no ka ʻike ʻana i nā moku submarines ma o ka hoʻohana ʻia ʻana o nā nalu kani. ʻO kēia ka mua o ka naʻau o nā noi ʻana, ʻoiai i ka pau ʻana o ka paio, ua lawe ʻia ka transmutation hana mua o nā mea kemika e ka hoʻopahū ʻana i kahi atomona nitrogen e like me nā ʻāpana alpha. Kūkā ʻia nā hana nui a Rutherford i kēia lā i nā hale waihona puke a me nā kula a puni ka honua. ʻO ka hapa nui o kāna hana pili lākou i ka radioactivity a me ka radiation mai nā mea radioactive.

Mahalo i ka ʻike i loaʻa i kāna mau noiʻi e pili ana i ka hemo ʻana o nā mea, ua hiki iā ia ke loaʻa ka Nobel Prize ma ke kemika ma 1908, ma mua o ka paʻi ʻana i kāna hoʻohālikelike atomika. Ua kapa ʻia ka inoa ʻo Element 104 o ka papa papa manawa ʻo Rutherfordium i kona hanohano. Eia nō naʻe, ʻike mākou ʻaʻohe mea mau loa, a ʻoiai ua hāʻawi kēia ʻepekema i kahi holomua nui loa i ka ʻepekema, ua make ʻo ia ma ʻOkakopa 19, 1937 ma Cambridge, ʻEnelani. Ua waiho ʻia kona kino make ma Westminster Abbey a ma laila lākou e hoʻomaha ai me ka poʻe o ʻO Sir Isaac Newton lāua ʻo Lord Kelvin.

E like me kāu e ʻike ai, nui nā ʻepekema i hāʻawi mai i nā ʻike he nui a me ka ʻike i ka honua o ka ʻepekema a, pū, ke hōʻike nui nei lākou iā mākou. Lana koʻu manaʻo me kēia ʻike hiki iā ʻoe ke aʻo hou aʻe e pili ana i ka moʻomeheu a me nā hana a Lord Ernest Rutherford.


Hoʻopili ka ʻike o ka ʻatikala i kā mākou kumumanaʻo o ka hoʻoponopono hoʻoponopono. E hōʻike i kahi kaomi hemahema ʻaneʻi.

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