Pae mauna

Himalaya

ka pae mauna He palahalaha nui lākou o nā kuahiwi pili, kahi e lilo ai i mau palena ʻāina ma waena o nā ʻāina. Ua hoʻomaka lākou i nā wahi i loli ka lepo ma muli o ka neʻe ʻana o nā papa tectonic, e hoʻoulu ana i nā sediment, e piʻi aʻe i ka ʻili o ka honua a hoʻomaka i nā pae mauna like ʻole. ʻO nā kuahiwi pinepine nā piko. Hiki i ke kiʻekiʻena o kāna sediment ke lawe i nā ʻano a me nā nui like ʻole, e like me nā kuahiwi, nā pae, nā puʻu, nā mauna, a me nā kualono.

I kēia ʻatikala e haʻi aku mākou iā ʻoe i nā mea āpau e pono ai ʻoe e ʻike e pili ana i nā pae mauna, ko lākou hoʻokumu ʻana, ke aniau a me nā ʻano.

Ke hoʻokumu ʻia ʻana o nā pae mauna

pae mauna

Hoʻokumu ʻia nā kuahiwi e ka neʻe ʻana o nā honua i ka honua. Hoʻopili ʻia nā sediment ma ka ʻili e nā phenomena o waho, e like me wela nui, pāhili lepo makani, ʻaʻai wai, etc.

Hiki ke hoʻoulu ʻia nā kuahiwi mai nā kiʻekiʻe o lalo o ka wai. ʻO kēia ka hihia no ka mokupuni ʻo Hawaiʻi a me nā mokupuni e pili ana, kahi ʻōnaehana mauna ma lalo o ke kai, a kū aʻe ko lākou mau piko ma luna o ka ʻilikai e lilo i pae mokupuni.

ʻO ka mauna kiʻekiʻe loa o ka honua i ʻike ʻia ʻo Mauna Kea i Hawaii. Komo i loko he lua pele hiamoe i piholo i loko o ka Moana Pākīpika. Aia he 10.203 mau mika mai lalo a i luna, akā ʻo ka kiʻekiʻe he 4.205 mau mika. ʻO ka mauna kiʻekiʻe loa e like me ka pae kai ʻo Mount Everest, 8850 mau mika ma luna o kaʻilikai.

aniau

Kuahiwi Andes

ʻO ke kiʻekiʻe o ka lewa lewa, loaʻa ka liʻiliʻi o ka oxygen.

ʻO ke aniau mauna (i kapa ʻia ʻo ke aniau alpine) ʻokoʻa me ka wahi, ka palapala ʻāina, a me ke kiʻekiʻe o nā kuahiwi. Hoʻopili ke aniau e pili ana i ka mahana o ke kuahiwi mai ka wāwae o ka mauna a hiki i ke kiʻekiʻe awelika, ke kiʻekiʻe o ke kiʻekiʻe o ka mauna, ʻoi aku ka nui o ka ʻokoʻa me ke aniau āpana.

Mai 1.200 mika ma luna o ka ʻilikai, ʻoi aku ke anuanu a me ka hou o ka mahana, a ua nui ka ua. Hoʻoemi ke kaomi haʻahaʻa ma muli o ka piʻi ʻana o ke kiʻekiʻe, ʻo ia hoʻi ka haʻahaʻa a me ka haʻahaʻa o ke ea, a paʻakikī i nā meaola e hanu i ko lākou piʻi ʻana.

Nā hiʻohiʻona

Kanetabrian

ʻO kahi sierra kahi ʻāpana o kahi kuahiwi liʻiliʻi e kū ana i kahi kuahiwi ʻoi aku ka nui. ʻO nā kuahiwi ʻike ʻia e nā kiʻekiʻe kaulike a ʻokoʻa loa paha, akā o ke kiʻekiʻe waena.

ʻO kahi laʻana ʻo Sierra Negra, Mekiko, aia ma waena o nā mokuʻāina ʻo Veracruz a me Puebla (ʻāpana o nā mauna Pele Hou). Loaʻa iā ia kahi lua pele pio a ʻo ka lima o ka mauna kiʻekiʻe ma ka ʻāina me ke kiʻekiʻe o 4.640 mika. He wahi mākaʻikaʻi maikaʻi loa ia no ka holo kaʻa mauna a me ka holo wāwae.

Kuahiwi Andes

ʻO ka Andes ka mauna kiʻekiʻe kiʻekiʻe ʻelua ma hope o ka Himalayas. He ʻōnaehana mauna ia ma ʻAmelika Hema. ʻO ia ka pae mauna ʻoi loa ma ka honua, me ka lōʻihi o 8.500 kilomita a me ka awelika kiʻekiʻe o 4.000 mika, ʻo ia ka lua o nā kuahiwi kiʻekiʻe ma hope o ka Himalayas. ʻO kona kiʻekiʻe kiʻekiʻe ʻo Aconcagua, ʻo ia ka 6,960 mau mika ma luna o ka ʻilikai. Aia ia ma kahi me kahi hana seismic a me ka luaipele ikaika.

Hoʻokumu ʻia nā Andes i ka Mesozoic Era. Hoʻonui ʻia ia mai ka ʻāina ʻo Venezuelan o Táchira a i Tierra del Fuego i Argentina (ma o Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia a me Chile). Ua hoʻomau aku kāna huakaʻi i ka hema, a hana i kahi mauna ma lalo o ka wai i kapa ʻia ʻo "Arco de las Antillas del Sur" a i ʻole "Arco de Scotia", ua ʻike ʻia kekahi o kona mau piko i ke kai e hana i nā mokupuni liʻiliʻi.

Himalaya

ʻO ke kiʻekiʻe awelika o ka Himalayas he 6.100 m. Aia ia ma ʻAsia a ʻo ia ka moʻo mauna kiʻekiʻe loa o ka honua. Ma waena o nā kuahiwi he nui i haku ʻia ia, kū ʻo Mount Everest, kahi kiʻekiʻe loa ma ka honua ma 8.850 mau mika ma luna o ka ʻilikai, a ma muli o nā pilikia nui loa i loko, ua lilo ia i hōʻailona no nā poʻe piʻi i ka honua holoʻokoʻa.

Ua hoʻokumu ʻia ka Himalayas ma kahi o 55 miliona mau makahiki i hala. Ua hoʻonui ʻia i 2.300 mau mile mai ka ʻākau o Pakistan a i Arunachal Pradesh (India), e kaʻa ana iā Tibet no ka huakaʻi holoʻokoʻa. ʻO kona awelika kiʻekiʻe he 6.100 mau mika.

ʻO nā ʻōnaehana wai ʻekolu o ʻAsia i hānau ʻia ma Himalayas: ka Indus, nā Ganges a me nā Yangtze. Kōkua pū kēia mau kahawai i ka mālama ʻana i ke aniau o ka honua, keu hoʻi ma ka waena konu o ka ʻāina ʻĀnia. ʻO ka Himalayas kahi home o kekahi mau aniani e like me Siachen (ʻo ka mea nui loa ma ka honua ma waho o nā wahi polar), ʻo Gangotri a me Yamunotri.

ʻO nā pae mauna ʻē aʻe

E wehewehe ana mākou i kekahi o nā pae mauna nui loa o ka honua.

  • Pae mauna ʻo Neovolánica (Mexico). ʻO ia kahi ʻōnaehana mauna i hoʻokumu ʻia e nā luaipele ʻeleu a hana ʻole hoʻi, mai Cabo Corrientes ma ke komohana komohana a Xalapa a me Veracruz ma ke kahakai hikina, e hele ana i waena o Mexico. ʻO nā kiʻekiʻe kiʻekiʻe e like me Orizaba (5.610 mika), Popocatépetl (5.465 mika), Istachivat (5.230 mika) a me Colima (4.100 mika) kū i waho. Hoʻohana ʻia ka hapa nui o kona mau awāwa a me kona mau kiaha no ka mahiʻai, a ʻo ka lepo ona mea hao he kala, kēpau, kiniki, keleawe, a me ka piʻina.
  • Nā Alps (ʻEulopa). ʻO ia ka ʻōnaehana mauna nui loa ma waena o ʻEulopa, e hana ana i 1.200 km lōʻihi mauna mauna e moe ana mai ka hikina o Palani a i Kuikilana, ʻItalia, Kelemania a me ʻAsuria. ʻOi aku kekahi o kona mau piko ma mua o 3.500 mau mika ke kiʻekiʻe a loaʻa ma mua o 1.000 mau aniani. I loko o ka mōʻaukala, nui nā mōneka Karistiano i noho ma nā kuahiwi o nā kuahiwi Alpina e ʻimi nei i ka maluhia.
  • Nā mauna Pōhaku (ʻAmelika Hema). He pae mauna ia mai ka Kolamu Beritania ma ka ʻĀkau ʻo Alberta a me Kanada a hiki i ka hema o New Mexico. ʻO ka lōʻihi o ka lōʻihi he 4.800 kilomita a ʻo nā piko aia ma kahi o 4.000 mika ke kiʻekiʻe. Loaʻa iā ia nā aniani he nui e like me Dinwoody a me Gooseneck, e emi wikiwiki nei a wikiwiki hoʻi ma muli o ka hoʻomehana honua.
  • Pyrenees (Sepania a me Palani). He ʻōnaehana mauna ia mai ka hikina a i ke komohana ma waena o Sepania a me Palani (mai Cape Cruz ma ke Kaiwaenahonua a i nā Kuahiwi ʻo Cantabrian) a hoʻonui ʻia ma kahi o 430 mau kilomita. ʻO kona mau piko kiʻekiʻe aia ma ka waena o nā kuahiwi a ʻoi aku ma mua o 3.000 mika ke kiʻekiʻe, e like me Aneto (3.404 mika), Posets (3.375 mika), Monte Perdido (3.355 mika) a me Pico Maldito (3.350 mau mika). I kēia manawa, loaʻa iā ia kekahi mau aniani ʻili liʻiliʻi aia ma luna o 2700 mau mika ma luna o kaʻilikai.

Lana koʻu manaʻo me kēia ʻike hiki iā ʻoe ke aʻo hou aʻe e pili ana i nā pae mauna nui loa o ka honua a me ko lākou ʻano.


Hoʻopili ka ʻike o ka ʻatikala i kā mākou kumumanaʻo o ka hoʻoponopono hoʻoponopono. E hōʻike i kahi kaomi hemahema ʻaneʻi.

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  1. He kuleana no ka ʻikepili: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Ke kumu o ka ʻikepili: kaohi SPAM, hoʻokele ʻōlelo.
  3. Legitimation: Kou ʻae
  4. Ka kamaʻilio ʻana o ka ʻikepili: ʻaʻole e hōʻike ʻia ka ʻikepili i nā ʻaoʻao ʻekolu koe ka mana o ke kānāwai.
  5. Pūnaewele mālama: Pūnaewele i mālama ʻia e Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Nā Kuleana: I kēlā me kēia manawa hiki iā ʻoe ke palena, hoʻōla a kāpae i kāu ʻike.