Hoʻololi ke aniau i ka nalo o ka synchrony o nā kaiaola

nalowale nā ​​butterflies i ka synchrony me nā kaiaolaola

He hopena koʻikoʻi ka hopena o ke aniau no nā kaiaola. ʻO nā ʻano, nā holoholona a me nā mea kanu a me nā meaola ʻē aʻe pū kekahi i nā loli ma muli o nā hopena o ka huliau.

Me ka piʻi ʻana o ka mahana, nā loli i nā pōʻaiapuni kūlohelohe, hoʻonui i nā hanana kau wela, a pēlā aku Nui nā holoholona a me nā mea kanu i lōkahi ʻole ʻia me nā kaiaolaola. He aha ka manaʻo a he aha nā hopena o kahi ʻano e nalo nei i kāna synchrony me nā kaiaola?

Hōʻike i nā loli i nā kaiaola

lana ka pua e ka loli

I kēia ʻatikala e kamaʻilio wau e pili ana i ka phenology, no laila e wehewehe wau inā loaʻa kekahi kānalua. ʻO Phenology ka ka pilina ma waena o ke ola o nā holoholona a me nā mea kanu ma ke ʻano he ʻano o ka hoʻololi manawa. ʻO kahi laʻana, ʻo ka hoʻohua a i ʻole nā ​​pōʻai pūnana o kahi manu kahi ʻano phenological.

ʻO Richard Fitter kahi mea kākau o nā puke he nui e pili ana i nā pua, nā manu, a me nā kumuhana pili, he kanaka kūlohelohe kaulana i nā makahiki 90. E holoholo ana ʻo ia i ka waena o ke kenekulia i hala a, no ka leʻaleʻa ma mua o nā kumu ʻepekema, ua kākau ʻo ia i ka lā pua o haneli o nā mea kanu, ka haʻalele ʻana o nā pepepe i ka hopena o ke kauwela a me nā ʻōuli ʻē aʻe e hōʻailona i ka hoʻomaka a me ka hopena o nā kau ʻO kēia mau mea āpau he ʻano phenological lākou o ka laha.

I ka hala ʻana o ka manawa, ua lilo kāna keiki ʻo Alastair i naturalist a ma ke ʻano he makua, ua ʻike ʻo ia i ke koʻikoʻi o nā nota a kona makuakāne e hana nei. Ua hoʻokumu lākou kekahi o nā moʻolelo i kū ma ka phenology o nā ʻano he nui. I ka manawa i hoʻomaka ai ʻo ia e hele i nā moʻolelo āpau, ua hoʻomehana ʻia ka honua ma muli o ka hoʻololi o ke aniau a ua piʻi aʻe nā mahana o ka honua i nā 0,6 kekelē i nā 100 mau makahiki i hala.

Ua ʻike ʻo Alastair i nā moʻolelo i lawe ʻia i nā 385 mau i hōʻike ʻole i kahi ʻano kūlike. I ka hoʻohālikelike ʻana i nā wā pua o nā mea kanu he XNUMX a ʻoi, ua ʻike ʻo ia ia mau mea mua i ka awelika o 4 lā. Ua mohala kekahi ʻano a i ʻelua mau pule ma mua. Me kēia, ua hoʻomaka ʻo ia e hōʻike i ke ʻano o ka huliau me ka wikiwiki kupaianaha ma muli o ka piʻi ʻana o ka mahana, "manaʻo" nā mea kanu i ka wā ma mua, no laila pua lākou.

Hōʻike i nā loli i ka phenology

hoʻonui ka hoʻomehana honua i nā mahana

Ua hoʻopuka ka Intergovernmental Panel ma ka Change Change (IPCC) i kahi hōʻike e pili ana i ka pilina ma waena o nā laha a me ka mahana no nā makahiki he 20 i hala. ʻO nā mea he 500 a ʻoi paha o nā manu, nā amphibians, nā mea kanu a me nā meaola ʻē aʻe i hoʻopaʻa ʻia, 80% i loli, i ke ala e manaʻo ai kekahi mai ka hoʻonui ʻana o nā mahana. Ua loli nā mea e like me ka lā o ka hānau hou ʻana a i ʻole ka neʻe ʻana, ka lōʻihi o ke kau ulu ʻana, a i ʻole ka nui a me ka hāʻawi ʻana o ka lehulehu.

Hoʻopau kēia hōʻike, ma loko o ke kenekulia XNUMX, hoʻololi i ke aniau āpana, kahi e piʻi ai ka mahana ma ke ʻano he hopena hoʻoholo loa. ua loaʻa ka hopena ma nā ʻōnaehana biology a me kā lākou pōʻaiapuni kūlohelohe.

Ua mālama ʻia nā ʻano noiʻi like ʻole e hoʻāʻo ai e hoʻopaʻa i ka hoʻomehana honua ʻana i nā pilina ma waena o nā mea kanu a me nā holoholona i ke kaiaola like. I kekahi mau hihia, hoʻohaʻahaʻa nā mahana wela i nā loulou i ka kaulahao meaʻai a me ka maikaʻi o kekahi mau meaola e ola i ko lākou wahi noho.

Ala i mua kekahi mau holoholona a me nā mea kanu

ʻaʻole pili ka tit nui i ka loli, akā ʻo kāna meaʻai ka

Aia kekahi ʻano manu e like me ka tit nui (Parus nui) e hoʻomaka i kā lākou hana i ka pūnana makahiki ma ʻApelila a Mei. Ma hope o ka hoʻokolokolo ʻana o kēia mau manu kahi o nā pahele i hoʻokau ʻia ai ma kahi o kā lākou pūnana e hiki ai ke hopu, kaupaona, ana iā lākou, etc. Ua hoʻoholo ʻia, ma hope o 18 mau ana o nā ana (mai 1985 a 2003), ʻaʻole i loli ka phenology o ka tit nui, mai ko lākou pūnana ʻana i ka lā like i kēlā me kēia makahiki. Hiki iā mākou ke ʻōlelo i ka loli ʻana o ke aniau ʻaʻole pili i nā moa. Eia naʻe, ua loli i kekahi laha o nā ʻenuhe o ka pepe pō (ʻO Operophtera brumata) ʻo ia, a me nā lāhui ʻē aʻe i ʻoi aku ka nui o ka nui, lawelawe ʻia ma ke ʻano he meaʻai no nā keiki moa.

I kēia manawa, hiki ke loaʻa ka nui o nā ʻenuhe no nā keiki moa ʻelua mau pule ma mua o ka 1985. ʻO kēia hopena o ka hoʻonui ʻana o ka nui o nā ʻenuhe kūlike kūlike me ka wā o ka makemake nui o ka meaʻai i nā moa. I kēia manawa, hatch ka hapanui o nā pīpī ke pau ka wā ʻenuhe. Hāʻawi ʻia i ka hemahema o ka meaʻai, ʻo nā pīpī wale nō e ala aʻe i mua ka mea i hiki ke ʻai i nā ʻenuhe.

Ke nalowale nei ka pūnaewele pūnaewele synchrony

pili ka ʻenuhe butterfly i ka loli ma muli o ka holomua o nā ʻō ʻoka

ʻAʻole wale nā ​​manu a me nā pulelehua e nalowale synchrony, akā ʻo lākou kekahi nā pae haʻahaʻa o ke kaulahao meaʻai. ʻAi ka pulelehua i ka lau ʻōpiopio, palupalu o nā ʻoka kahi i noho ai nā hale manu. I mea e ola ai, pono ke hānai i ka ʻenuhe e like me ka haki ʻana o nā ʻōpuʻu a hāmama nā lau ʻoka. Inā kū ka pepelu mai ka hua manu ma mua o ʻelima mau lā ma mua o ka poha ʻana o ka yolk, pōloli ia. E hana like kēia inā ʻoi aku kēia ma mua o ʻelua mau pule ma hope, no ka mea ua hoʻopiha ʻia nā lau ʻoka me ka tannin, inaina ʻia e ka ʻenuhe.

A ʻo ia ma ke kūlohelohe ke alualu nei nā mea āpau i kahi kaulike kikoʻī, kahi manawa kūpono e loaʻa ai ka laha i ka laha o ka hiki ke ola. ʻAʻole ia e like ke ʻano o nā mea ma muli o ka "dictated" a i ʻole "kauoha ʻia" e kekahi, akā ʻo kēlā ʻano, nā holoholona a me nā mea kanu, loaʻa kēia mau pōʻai e like me kēia, no ka mea ma loko o ka mōʻaukala. Loaʻa ka evolution a me ka adaptation i kāna phenology i loaʻa i kēia mau manawa mai ke kiʻekiʻe o ke kūleʻa o ke kūleʻa.

Me ke aniau hoʻololi i kēia mau pōʻaiapuni āpau e loli nui. ʻIke ka nui o nā laha i ko lākou kūlana o ke ola i hoʻoliʻiliʻi i ke alo o nā hanana loli a me nā ʻano lewa like ʻole. ʻO ka piʻi ʻana o ka mahana ka mea e holomua ai ka puna a me nā pōʻai pua o nā ʻano mea kanu he nui pili lākou i nā holoholona e ulu. Inā mākou e kauō nei i kēia i loko o ke kaulahao meaʻai, ʻike mākou he nui nā pilikia i ka synchrony o nā kaiaolaola a ʻaʻole e holo pono ke kaulike kaiaola palupalu e like me ka mea e pono ai.


Hoʻopili ka ʻike o ka ʻatikala i kā mākou kumumanaʻo o ka hoʻoponopono hoʻoponopono. E hōʻike i kahi kaomi hemahema ʻaneʻi.

E lilo i mea mua e wehewehe

E waiho i kāu manaʻo

Kāu leka uila aae? E,ʻaʻole e paʻiʻia. i hāliu aku i koi 'ia kula *

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  1. He kuleana no ka ʻikepili: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Ke kumu o ka ʻikepili: kaohi SPAM, hoʻokele ʻōlelo.
  3. Legitimation: Kou ʻae
  4. Ka kamaʻilio ʻana o ka ʻikepili: ʻaʻole e hōʻike ʻia ka ʻikepili i nā ʻaoʻao ʻekolu koe ka mana o ke kānāwai.
  5. Pūnaewele mālama: Pūnaewele i mālama ʻia e Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Nā Kuleana: I kēlā me kēia manawa hiki iā ʻoe ke palena, hoʻōla a kāpae i kāu ʻike.