muliwai o Ioredane

muliwai o Ioredane ma ka Baibala

El muliwai o Ioredane he muliwai haiki 320 kilomita ka loa. Aia no ia ma na mauna Anati-Lebanona ma ka aoao akau o ka Iseraela, e kahe ana iloko o ke Kai o Galilaia ma ka wawae akau o mauna Heremona, a pau i ke Kai make ma kona welau hema. ʻO ia ka palena ma waena o Ioredane a me ka ʻIseraʻela. ʻO ka muliwai ʻo Ioredane ka muliwai nui loa, kapu loa a koʻikoʻi ma ka ʻāina hoʻāno a ua ʻōlelo pinepine ʻia ma ka Baibala.

Ma kēia ʻatikala e haʻi aku mākou iā ʻoe i nā ʻano āpau, ka mōʻaukala, ka geology a me ke koʻikoʻi o ka muliwai ʻo Ioredane.

Nā kuhikuhi nui

ʻO Ioredane nā mea hoʻoweliweli

ʻO kekahi o nā hiʻohiʻona o Ioredane ʻoi aku ma mua o 360 mau kilomita ka lōʻihi, akā, ma muli o kona ala wiliwili, ʻo ka mamao maoli ma waena o kona kumu a me ke Kai Make ma lalo o 200 mau kilomita. Ma hope o ka makahiki 1948, ua hōʻailona ka muliwai i ka palena ma waena o ʻIseraʻela a me Ioredane, mai ka ʻaoʻao hema o ke Kai o Galilaia a hiki i kahi e kahe ai ka muliwai ʻo Abis mai ka ʻaoʻao hikina (hema).

Eia naʻe, mai ka makahiki 1967, i ka wā i noho ai nā pūʻali koa ʻIseraʻela i ke Komohana Komohana (ʻo ia hoʻi, ka ʻāina ʻo West Bank ma ka hema o kona hui ʻana me ka muliwai ʻo Ibis), ua hoʻonui ʻia ka muliwai ʻo Ioredane i ke kai ma ke ʻano he laina hoʻomaha.

Ua kapa ka poe Helene i ka muliwai o Aulon a i kekahi manawa ua kapaia e ka poe Arabia ia Al-Sharī'ah ("wahi wai inu"). ʻO nā Karistiano, nā Iudaio a me nā Mahometa e mahalo i ka muliwai Ioredane. Ma kona wai i bapetizoia ai o Iesu e Sana Ioane Bapetite. Ua lilo ka muliwai i wahi kapu haipule a me kahi e bapetizo ai.

ʻEkolu kumu nui o ka muliwai o Ioredane, ʻo ia mau mea a pau ma ke kumu o mauna Heremona. ʻO Ḥāṣbānī ka lōʻihi loa o kēia mau mea, kokoke i Ḥāṣbayyā ma Lebanona, ma 1800 kapuaʻi. (550m). Ua kahe ka muliwai Bania ma Suria mai ka hikina mai. Aia ma ka waena ka muliwai ʻo Dan, nona nā wai e hōʻoluʻolu loa.

Aia ma loko o ka ʻIseraʻela, hui kēia mau muliwai ʻekolu ma ke awāwa ʻo Hula. Ua noho mua ʻia ke awāwa ʻo Ḥula e nā loko a me nā puʻuhonua, akā i ka makahiki 1950 ma kahi o 60 mau kilomika square i hoʻokahe ʻia e lilo i ʻāina mahiʻai. I ka makahiki 1990, ua hoʻohaʻahaʻa ʻia ka hapa nui o ka papahele a me nā ʻāpana i lalo.

Ua hoʻoholo ʻia e mālama i ka loko a me nā ʻāina pulu a puni ma ke ʻano he mālama kūlohelohe, a ua hoʻi kekahi o nā mea kanu a me nā holoholona, ​​ʻoi aku ka manu lele, i kēlā wahi. Ma ka ʻaoʻao hema o ke awāwa, ʻoki ka muliwai ʻo Ioredane i kahi canyon ma waena o kahi pā basalt. Hāʻule ka muliwai i ke kahakai ʻākau o ke Kai o Galilaia.

Hoʻokumu ʻia ʻo Ioredane

Aia ka muliwai ʻo Ioredane ma luna o ke awāwa ʻo Ioredane, he puʻu i loko o ka ʻili honua ma waena o ka ʻIseraʻela a me Ioredane i hana ʻia i ka wā Miocene i ka wā i neʻe ai ka pā Arabia i ka ʻākau a ma ka hikina mai ʻApelika i kēia manawa. Ma hope o 1 miliona mau makahiki, Piʻi ka ʻāina a emi ke kai. Ua ʻike ʻia ʻo Triassic a me Mesozoic strata ma ke awāwa hikina-waena o Ioredane.

Flora a me na holoholona o ka muliwai o Ioredane

muliwai ʻIseraʻela

ʻO ka muliwai ʻo Ioredane me ke kanalua ʻole e kahe ana ma waena o kekahi o nā ʻāina maloʻo o ka Hikina kokoke. ʻO ka hapa nui o nā Aia ka aina momona ma ke kapa komohana a ma ka hikina a me ke komohana o ka muliwai o Ioredane. I loko o kēia kīʻaha hiki iā ʻoe ke loaʻa mai nā ʻāpana Mediterranean sub-humid a i nā ʻāina maloʻo kahi i hoʻololi ʻia ai nā ʻano e ola ai.

He mau i'a like Luciobarbus longiceps, Acanthobrama lissneri, Haplochromis flaviijosephi, Pseudophoxinus libani, Salaria fluviatilis, Zenarchopterus dispar, Pseudophoxinus drusensis, Garra ghorensis a me Oxynoemacheilus insignis; molluscs melanopsis ammonis y melanopsis costata a me nā crustaceans like ʻO Potamon potamios a me nā mea o ka genus Emerita. I loko o ke kīʻaha noho nā mammals e like me nā rodents Mus macedonicus a me ka Eurasian otter (lutra lutra); nā inika like Calopteryx syriaca a me nā manu e like me ka Sinai bullfinch (Carpodacus synoicu).

No ka pua, nā kumu lāʻau, nā lāʻau a me nā mauʻu ka mea nui, a ma nā wahi ulu nui na laau oliva, na laau kedera, eucalyptus, a me na laau oka a me na paina, a ma na wahi hope e ulu ai na laau ooi.

Waiwai waiwai

ʻO nā wai o ka muliwai ʻo Ioredane ka lua o ka wai nui loa ma ka ʻIseraʻela. Hoʻohana ʻia ka nui o ka wai no ke kālā ʻana i ka mahiʻai a me ka mahiʻai ʻana, a i ka ulu ʻana o ka nui o ka muliwai a me ka ulu ʻana o ka hoʻokele waiwai, pono ka paila wai e hoʻokō i nā pono o nā kamaʻāina. ʻO Ioredane wale nō ka loaʻa ʻana o 50 miliona cubic mika wai mai ka muliwai ʻo Ioredane.

He kiʻekiʻe nā koi no ka wai no ka mahiʻai a me ka hoʻohana ʻana i ka home; ma kekahiʻaoʻao, heʻuʻuku loa nā koi wai o kaʻoihanaʻoihana. ʻO ka mea nui kēia ma muli o ka hoʻonui ʻana i ka helu a me ka nui o nā ʻoihana ma ke kahawai ʻo Aqaba a me ka ʻāina ʻo Dead Sea.

He mea weliweli

muliwai o Ioredane

ʻO ka muliwai ʻo Ioredane i kēia manawa he wai haumia a paʻakai loa. Ma ke kumu, holo ka muliwai ma waena o kekahi o nā ʻāina nui loa a me ka liʻiliʻi o ka wai o ka honua, no laila ʻoi aku ka nui o ka hoʻohana ʻana i kāna mau kumuwaiwai kūlohelohe i kona hiki ke hoʻoponopono hou. Ua manaʻo ʻia ua hoʻemi ʻia ke kahe o ka muliwai i 2% o kona kahe mua. ʻO ka hoʻoheheʻe kiʻekiʻe, ke anuanu maloʻo, a me ka hoʻomake nui ʻana e alakaʻi i ka salinization. I ka pōkole, mālama ka poʻe i ka wā e hiki mai ana o ka muliwai o Ioredane a me nā poʻe i loko o kona kīʻaha.

No ka pale ʻana i nā pilikia koʻikoʻi o ke kaiapuni, ua hui pū kekahi mau hui a me nā aupuni e kālele i ka hoʻokele hoʻomau o nā kumuwaiwai kahawai. He kahawai wai ma kahi ʻāina maloʻo maʻamau o ka Hikina Waena, ʻo ka muliwai ʻo Ioredane kahi waiwai nui, kūʻokoʻa a waiwai nui no nā miliona o ka poʻe e noho kokoke ana.

Ua nalowale ʻo ia ma kahi o 98% o kāna kahe i hoʻopaʻa ʻia inā hoʻohana ka ʻāina i kona wai (ʻO Israel, Suria, Ioredane a me Palesetina) e maloʻo paha i nā makahiki e hiki mai ana. Me ka ʻole o nā ana paʻa a kūpono. ʻO ka ʻIseraʻela, Suria a me Ioredane ke kuleana no ka hāʻule ʻana o ka muliwai ʻo Ioredane, ka muliwai kahi i bapetizo ʻia ai ʻo Iesū, ʻo ia ka mea i wehe ʻia i ka lewa i ka lani kahi e kahe ai nā tausani cubic mika o ka wai ʻino. ʻO nā wai o ke Kai o Galilaia a me ke Kai Make, 105 mau kilomita i ka hema, e hoʻokahe ʻia ana ma kahi o 1.300 biliona cubic mika i kēlā me kēia makahiki.

Hoʻololi mau ka mokuʻāina o ʻIseraʻela i ka wai, e hōʻike ana ma kahi o 46,47% o ke kahe no ka hoʻohana home a me ka hana mahiʻai; ʻO Suria ka 25,24%, Jordan 23,24% a me Palestine 5,05%. No laila, ʻaʻole ʻo ka muliwai ʻo Ioredane kahi kumu mau o ka wai maʻemaʻe kiʻekiʻe, a ʻaʻole hiki ke kahe i kēia manawa i 20-30 miliona cubic mika i kēlā me kēia makahiki.

Manaʻo wau me kēia ʻike hiki iā ʻoe ke aʻo hou e pili ana i ka muliwai Ioredane a me kona ʻano.


Hoʻopili ka ʻike o ka ʻatikala i kā mākou kumumanaʻo o ka hoʻoponopono hoʻoponopono. E hōʻike i kahi kaomi hemahema ʻaneʻi.

E lilo i mea mua e wehewehe

E waiho i kāu manaʻo

Kāu leka uila aae? E,ʻaʻole e paʻiʻia.

*

*

  1. He kuleana no ka ʻikepili: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Ke kumu o ka ʻikepili: kaohi SPAM, hoʻokele ʻōlelo.
  3. Legitimation: Kou ʻae
  4. Ka kamaʻilio ʻana o ka ʻikepili: ʻaʻole e hōʻike ʻia ka ʻikepili i nā ʻaoʻao ʻekolu koe ka mana o ke kānāwai.
  5. Pūnaewele mālama: Pūnaewele i mālama ʻia e Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Nā Kuleana: I kēlā me kēia manawa hiki iā ʻoe ke palena, hoʻōla a kāpae i kāu ʻike.