ʻO ka glaciation a me ka wā hau

Glaciation a me ka makahiki hau

I loko o nā miliona o nā makahiki i hala mai ka hoʻokumu ʻana o ka Honua, aia kekahi mau manawa o ka makahiki hau. Kāhea ʻia lākou e like me wā hau. ʻO kēia nā wā o ka manawa i kahi e hoʻololi ai i nā anilā e hoʻohaʻahaʻa i nā mahana wela o ka honua. Hana lākou ia mea ma ke ʻano a paʻa ka hapa nui o ka honua. He mea nui ia e ʻike inā ʻoe e kamaʻilio e pili ana i ka hoʻololi i ke aniau pono ʻoe i kahi kuhikuhi e waiho iā ʻoe iho i ka hiʻohiʻona o kā mākou honua.

Makemake ʻoe e ʻike i nā kaʻina hana o ka glaciation a me ka makahiki hau o ko mākou honua? Eia mākou e hōʻike ai i nā mea āpau.

Nā hiʻohiʻona o ke au hau

Nā holoholona i ka glaciation

Hoʻomaopopo ʻia kahi makahiki hau ma ke ʻano he manawa i hōʻike ʻia e ke kū mau o kahi uhi hau nui. Hoʻolahalaha kēia hau i hoʻokahi o nā kia. Ua ʻike ʻia ua hala ka honua 90% o kona manawa i loko o nā makahiki miliona i hala ka 1% o nā anuanu anuanu. ʻO kēia mau mahana ke haʻahaʻa loa mai ka makahiki 500 miliona i hala. I nā huaʻōlelo ʻē aʻe, paʻa ka Honua i kahi kūlana anuanu loa. ʻIke ʻia kēia wā ʻo ka Quaternary Ice Age.

ʻO nā makahiki hau ʻehā i hala me 150 mau makahiki ka lōʻihi. No laila, manaʻo ka poʻe ʻepekema ma muli o nā loli i ka orbit o ka Honua a i ʻole nā ​​hoʻololi o ka hana o ka lā. Makemake nā ʻepekema ʻē aʻe i ka wehewehe terrestrial. ʻO kahi laʻana, ʻo ka hiʻohiʻona o ke au o ka hau e kuhikuhi i ka hoʻokaʻawale ʻana o nā ʻāina a i ʻole ke kūmau ʻana o nā kinoea hoʻomehana hale.

Wahi a ka wehewehe ʻana o ka glaciation, he wā ia i hōʻike ʻia e ka loaʻa ʻana o nā pāpale hau i nā kia. Na kēlā lula o ka manamana nui, i kēia manawa ua lūlū ʻia mākou i loko o ke au hau, no ka mea, he 10% o ka papakū o ka papa honua āpau e noho ai

Hoʻomaopopo ʻia ka glaciation ma ke ʻano he mau makahiki hau i haʻahaʻa ka haʻahaʻa o ka mahana ma ka honua holoʻokoʻa. ʻO nā pāpale hau, ma ke ʻano he hopena, hoʻonui i nā latitude haʻahaʻa a lanakila i nā ʻāina. Ua loaʻa nā pāpale hau ma nā latitude o ka equator. ʻO ka makahiki hau i hala ma kahi o 11 tausani mau makahiki i hala.

ʻIke ʻia nā makahiki hau

ʻO ka cryogenic

Aia kekahi lālā o ka ʻepekema ke kuleana no ke aʻo ʻana i nā glaciers. E pili ana i ka glaciology. ʻO ia ka mea e mālama i ke aʻo ʻana i nā hōʻike kūlohelohe o ka wai i kahi kūlana paʻa. Me ka wai i ka mokuʻāina paʻa e kuhikuhi lākou i nā aniani, ka hau, ka huahekili, nā kaʻa uila, ka hau a me nā ʻano ʻē aʻe.

Hoʻokahele ʻia kēlā me kēia manawa glaciation i ʻelua mau manawa: glacial a me interglacial. ʻO ka mea ma mua kahi i ʻoi loa nā kūlana o ka nohona a kū ka hau i nā wahi āpau o ka honua. Ma ka lima ʻē aʻe, ʻoi aku ke akahai o nā interglaciers, e like me kēia lā.

I kēia manawa, ʻelima mau manawa o ka makahiki hau i ʻike ʻia a ua hōʻoia ʻia: ʻO Quaternary, Karoo, Andean-Saharan, Cryogenic a me Huronian. Ua hana ʻia kēia mau mea āpau mai ka wā o ka Honua i hoʻokumu ʻia ai.

ʻAʻole ʻike ʻia nā makahiki hau ma nā kulu ʻoi loa o ka mahana, akā e nā piʻi wikiwiki.

Ua hoʻomaka ka wā Quaternary ma kahi o 2,58 miliona mau makahiki i hala aku nei a mau a hiki i kēia lā. ʻO ka Karoo, i ʻike ʻia ʻo ka Permo-Carboniferous wā, ʻo ia kekahi o ka lōʻihi loa, e like me 100 miliona mau makahiki, ma waena o 360 a 260 miliona mau makahiki i hala.

Ma ka ʻaoʻao ʻē aʻe, ʻo ka manawa hoʻoilina ʻo Andean-Saharan i hala 30 miliona mau makahiki wale nō a hana ʻia ma waena o 450 a me 430 mau makahiki i hala. ʻO ka manawa keu loa i hana ʻia ma kā mākou honua ka kānalua ʻole ka cryogenic kekahi. ʻO ia ka wā hau nui loa i ka mōʻaukala honua holoʻokoʻa o ka honua. Ma kēia pae ua manaʻo ʻia ua hiki i ka pale hau e uhi ana i nā pae ʻāina i ka equator equator.

Ua hoʻomaka ka glaciation ʻo Huronian i 2400 biliona mau makahiki i hala aku nei a ua pau ma kahi o 2100 i hala.

ʻO ka makahiki hau hope loa

Nā pāpale Polar no ka hapanui o ka honua

Aia mākou i kēia manawa i kahi wā interglacial ma waena o ka glaciation Quaternary. ʻO ka wahi i noho ʻia e nā kaupā polar a hōʻea i 10% o ka ʻili o ka honua. Hōʻike nā hōʻike iā mākou i loko o kēia manawa quaternary, aia kekahi mau makahiki hau.

Ke kuhikuhi ka heluna kanaka i ka "The Ice Age" pili ia i ka makahiki hau hope loa o kēia wā quaternary. Hoʻomaka ka quaternary 21000 mau makahiki i hala aku nei a ua pau ma kahi o 11500 mau makahiki i hala. Ua hana like ia i loko o nā hemispheres. ʻO nā mea hoʻolōʻihi nui o ka hau i loaʻa i ka hemisphere ʻākau. Ma ʻEulopa, ua holo ka hau, e uhi ana a puni ʻo Great Britain, Kelemania a me Polani. Ua kanu ʻia ʻo ʻAmelike ʻĀkau āpau ma lalo o ka hau.

Ma hope o ka paʻa hau, ua hāʻule ke kai i 120 mau mika. Aia nā wahi nui o ke kai i kēia lā i ka ʻāina i kēlā au. Pili pono kēia ʻikepili i ke aʻo ʻana i ka evolution genetics o nā lehulehu o nā holoholona a me nā mea kanu. I ka wā o kā lākou neʻe ʻana ma nā ʻāpana ʻāina i ka wā hau, ua hiki iā lākou ke hoʻololi i nā gen a neʻe i nā ʻāina ʻē aʻe.

Mahalo i ka pae kai haʻahaʻa, hiki ke hele wāwae mai Siberia a i Alaska. ʻO ka lehulehu lehulehu o ka hau ua hōʻea lākou i kahi mānoanoa o 3.500 a 4.000 mau mika, e uhi ana i ka hapakolu o nā ʻāina i kū aʻe.

I kēia manawa, ua helu ʻia inā hoʻoheheʻe ʻia nā glacier i koe, e piʻi ana ke kai ma waena o 60 a me 70 mau mika.

Nā kumu o ka glaciation

ʻO ka makahiki hau hou e hiki mai ana

Pili nā holomua a me nā haʻalele ʻana o ka hau i ka hōʻoluʻolu o ka Honua. Loaʻa kēia i nā loli i ka haku mele o ka lewa a me nā hoʻololi o ka pōʻai o ka Honua a puni ka Lā. He kumu paha ia no nā hoʻololi o ko ka Sun orbit i loko o kā mākou galaxy, ka Milky Way.

ʻO ka poʻe e manaʻo nei nā kumu o ka glaciations e nā kumu kūloko o ka Honua e pili ana i ka dinamika o nā papa tectonic a me ko lākou hopena i ke kūlana pili a me ka nui o nā wahi kai a me ka honua ma luna o ka honua. Manaʻo kekahi ma muli o nā loli i ka hana o ka lā a i ʻole ka ikaika o ka pōʻai honua.

ʻO ka hope, aia kekahi mau kumumanaʻo e hoʻopili i ka hopena o nā meteorite a i ʻole nā ​​lua pele nui me ka glaciation.

Hoʻokumu pinepine nā kumu i ka hoʻopaʻapaʻa a ʻōlelo nā ʻepekema kokoke mākou i ka hoʻopau ʻana i kēia wā interglacial. Manaʻo ʻoe e hiki mai ana kahi wā hau hou?


ʻO kahi manaʻo, waiho i kāu

E waiho i kāu manaʻo

Kāu leka uila aae? E,ʻaʻole e paʻiʻia. i hāliu aku i koi 'ia kula *

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  1. He kuleana no ka ʻikepili: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Ke kumu o ka ʻikepili: kaohi SPAM, hoʻokele ʻōlelo.
  3. Legitimation: Kou ʻae
  4. Ka kamaʻilio ʻana o ka ʻikepili: ʻaʻole e hōʻike ʻia ka ʻikepili i nā ʻaoʻao ʻekolu koe ka mana o ke kānāwai.
  5. Pūnaewele mālama: Pūnaewele i mālama ʻia e Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Nā Kuleana: I kēlā me kēia manawa hiki iā ʻoe ke palena, hoʻōla a kāpae i kāu ʻike.

  1.   ʻO Alejandro Olivares Ch ia

    Aloha Mtro.
    Mahalo wau iā ʻoe no kāu hana a me kou manaʻo ʻike. He Dr wau ma ka ʻepekema Hoʻokele a he kuhi kuhi kaʻu e ana ai i ka hoʻomau ʻana i nā hana mahiʻai. Makemake wau i kou ʻike e pili ana i ka pilikia glacial. Waiho wau iā ʻoe i kaʻu ʻike me ka leʻaleʻa. Mahalo.