Neanderthals

homo erectus

ʻIke mākou ua hele ke kanaka i loko o nā ʻano he nui a me ka evolution a hiki i ke kanaka o kēia manawa. ʻO kā mākou ʻano i kēīa manawa, ka homo sapiens, hele mai nā ʻano ʻē aʻe. ʻO kekahi o lākou ka Neanderthals. Neanderthals He kāne kahiko ia i noho ma nā wahi like ʻole o ka honua i ka manawa o ka Pleistocene. Ua loaʻa ka hiʻohina kahiko loa ma Demanisi, Keokia, a hiki i kahi o 1,8 miliona mau makahiki. Ua loaʻa ka ʻike mua o kēia ʻano i 1891 ma ka mokupuni ʻAsia o Java, kahi ʻāpana o Indonesia i kēia manawa.

I kēia ʻatikala e haʻi aku mākou iā ʻoe i nā mea āpau āu e ʻike ai e pili ana i ka Neanderthals, kona ʻano a me kona mōʻaukala.

Kumu o Neanderthals

homo erectus evolution

Ua noho kēia kanaka kahiko ma ka honua no ka manawa lōʻihi. Hoʻohui ʻia nā manaʻo i ka lā o kona make ʻana. Manaʻo kekahi poʻe anthropologists ua hiki ma kahi o 300.000 mau makahiki i hala aku nei, ʻoiai e ʻōlelo ana kekahi e 70.000 mau makahiki i hala aku nei. Ua alakaʻi kēia i kekahi poʻe loea e manaʻoʻiʻo e noho pū ʻo ia ʻO Homo sapiens, akā ʻaʻole kēia ke kūlana maʻamau i kēia lā.

Ke kumu o Neanderthals he hoʻopaʻapaʻa pū kekahi. I kēia ala, waiho kekahi i ʻApelika, ʻoiai ʻaʻole like ka nui o nā anthropologists a kāhea aku i ka specimen i loaʻa ma laila ʻO Homo ergaster. Kākoʻo nā mea kākoʻo i kēia kūlana i ka Neanderthals He ʻōiwi ia no ʻAsia.

ʻO kekahi o nā hiʻohiʻona keu o kēia kanaka kahiko kona mana cranial, ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi ma mua o ko nā lā mua. ʻO kekahi o nā kumu nui o kēia loli ka loaʻa ʻana o ka hana ʻana i ke ahi, a laila ua hoʻomaikaʻi ʻia ka meaʻai.

Neanderthals kekahi o nā kūpuna o ʻO Homo sapiens. Ke kahua o ka ulu ʻana o ke kanaka kahi o ka Neanderthals ʻO ia kekahi o nā pae ʻike ʻole loa, no laila noho pū kekahi mau ʻano ʻokoʻa ʻokoʻa. No laila, ua hoʻi kekahi o lākou i ʻApelika 1,8 miliona mau makahiki i hala.

Pono e hoʻomaopopo ʻia ua hōʻoia ka poʻe loea ʻē aʻe i ke koena i loaʻa ma ka ʻāina no kekahi ʻano like, ʻo Ergaster. ʻAe ka poʻe āpau me ka ʻoiaʻiʻo me ke ʻano ol Homo erectus, ua lilo ka lāhui primitive i poʻe nomad a haʻalele iā ʻApelika.

Ka loaʻa mua o Neanderthals ua hana ʻia ma Asia Hikina, akā ua loaʻa pū kekahi mau koena ma Eurasia. Ma nā wahi mamao kahi e loaʻa ai nā sediment, hiki ke hōʻoia pololei i ka kūleʻa o kēia ʻano. Hoʻokumu kēia i nā mea ʻokoʻa loa o ke kino a me ka moʻomeheu ma waena o lākou, no ka mea pono lākou e hoʻopili i nā ʻano ʻokoʻa o kēlā me kēia wahi. ʻO kahi laʻana, anuanu ke aniau ma ʻEulopa i kēlā manawa a inā ʻaʻole no ka loaʻa ʻana o ke ahi, he pilikia nui kēia.

Nā kuhikuhi nui

iwi poʻo kanaka

ʻAe ka poʻe loea āpau i ke ʻano nomadic o ka ʻO Homo erectus. Hōʻike ka hōʻike i hōʻike ʻia ʻo ia ka hominid mua i haʻalele iā ʻApelika. I loko o nā makahiki, ua hiki aku i ka Hikina Hema ʻo Asia.

ʻO ke kuhiakau kaulana loa hiki iā ʻoe ke hoʻohana i ke alahaka hau i hoʻokumu ʻia i ka wā o ka glacier no kēia huakaʻi. ʻO kāna hoʻonui ʻana ua hopena i ʻike ʻia ia i nā ʻāpana o Indonesia, Kina, ʻEulopa a i ʻole Central Asia.

E like me nā koena fossil āpau, ʻaʻole maʻalahi e hoʻoholo i nā ʻano kino a me nā meaola. Nānā nā ʻepekema i nā palena like ʻē aʻe i kahi kokoke, ke kiʻekiʻe a me ke ʻano o ka iwi poʻo. ʻO kahi laʻana, hāʻawi nā niho i ka ʻike nui e pili ana i ka papaʻai a me nā ʻano koʻikoʻi ʻē aʻe.

I kēia hihia, pono mākou e hoʻohui i ke alo o kekahi mau subspecies, he ʻano ʻokoʻa iki ko lākou. Eia nō naʻe kekahi mau hiʻohiʻona o ka Neanderthals i ʻae ʻia e ka lehulehu.

Nā hiʻohiʻona o ka Neanderthals

homo sapiens

ʻAʻole ʻike iki ʻia e pili ana i ka ʻili o ka Neanderthals. E like me kā mākou a pau e ʻike nei, he ʻeha pūnohu kona, akā ʻaʻole lahilahi a mānoanoa hoʻi. I ke ʻano o nā iwi, ke ʻano o ke pelvis o ka Neanderthals ua like ia me ko kānaka i kēia lā. Eia naʻe, ʻoi aku ka nui a me ka ikaika. Ua like kekahi mea e like me ka femur, a ʻo ke koena o nā mea i ʻike ʻia, ʻoi aku ka maʻalahi o ke aʻo ʻana. Ma waho aʻe o kona nui kiʻekiʻe, kekahi mau māka o ka hoʻokomo muscular e hōʻike i ka ikaika a ikaika o ke kino.

El Neanderthals, e like me ka manaʻo o ka inoa, hele ma nā wāwae ʻelua, ʻano like homo sapiens. I ka manawa mua ua manaʻo ʻia he liʻiliʻi loa ke kiʻekiʻe o ke kāne ma kahi o 1,67 mika. Aka hoi, ua hoʻololi nā koena hou i kēia ʻano noʻonoʻo. I kēia manawa ua manaʻo ʻia hiki i kahi mākua ke piʻi i kahi kiʻekiʻe o 1,8 mau mika, ʻoi aku ka lōʻihi ma mua o ka hominin mua.

ʻO ka auwae o ka Neanderthals He ikaika loa hoʻi ʻo ia, ʻoiai ʻaʻohe ona auwae. ʻO ka ʻoiaʻiʻo o ka liʻiliʻi o nā niho i kau nui i ka nānā. Ua ʻike ʻo Pontontologists i ka hoʻonui ʻana o ke kino, ua emi ka nui o ka niho.

Pēlā nō, ua liʻiliʻi ka ʻāʻī o ka iwi ā ua liʻiliʻi ka ʻāʻī. Hiki paha i ke alo o ke ahi a me ka momona momona i hana i kēia hopena. Ka iwi poʻo o Neanderthals ʻekolu ona ʻano ʻokoʻa. ʻO ka mua ka iwi supraorbital pololei, ʻoiai ʻaʻohe ona ʻano i loaʻa ma Helene a me Palani. Ma ka ʻaoʻao ʻē aʻe, loaʻa iā lākou kahi piko sagittal ma ka iwi poʻo, kahi e ʻike mau ʻia ai i waena o ko ʻAsia. ʻO kēia kekahi me nā overhangs o ka ovipital mānoanoa.

ʻLelo

ʻO kekahi o nā nīnau e kali nei ma ka Neanderthals ʻo ia inā ua hoʻohana ʻo ia i ka ʻōlelo i ka wā o kona ola. ʻO kekahi kumumanaʻo e pili ana i nā laha e hōʻike nei ʻo lākou ka poʻe mua i hoʻohana ia mea i ke kaiāulu a lākou i hana ai.

He paʻakikī e ʻike inā pololei kēia manaʻo ma ke aʻo ʻana i nā mōʻalihaku. Inā kākoʻo ke biology i kēia ʻoiaʻiʻo, no ka mea, he lolo ko lākou a me nā hanana waha e hana i kēia.

ʻO kahi noiʻi hou na Daniel Everett, ke poʻo o ke Kulanui o Nā Hana a me nā ʻEpekema ma ke Kulanui ʻo Bentley ma Massachusetts, ua hōʻoia kēia kuhiakau. Ma muli o kā lākou ʻike, ʻo ka huaʻōlelo mua i hoʻopuka ʻia e nā poʻe kahiko i ʻōlelo ʻia e nā lālā ol Homo erectus.

ʻO ka meaʻai kekahi o nā mea hoihoi loa o ka noiʻi o ka ʻO Homo erectus. ʻOi kikoʻī, ma hope o ka ʻike ʻana pehea e hana ai me nā loli i hana ʻia ma hope o ke ahi. I ka mua he holoholona omnivorous ia, e kiʻi i kaʻiʻo i hoʻohana ʻia i ke koena o nā kupapaʻu holoholona. He aha hou aʻe, Hōʻiliʻili pū ʻo ia i nā mea kanu a me nā mauʻu, e ʻimi nei i kahi papaʻai e like me ka hiki.

Lana koʻu manaʻo me kēia ʻike hiki iā ʻoe ke aʻo hou aʻe e pili ana i ka Neanderthals a me ko lākou ʻano.


Hoʻopili ka ʻike o ka ʻatikala i kā mākou kumumanaʻo o ka hoʻoponopono hoʻoponopono. E hōʻike i kahi kaomi hemahema ʻaneʻi.

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  1. He kuleana no ka ʻikepili: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Ke kumu o ka ʻikepili: kaohi SPAM, hoʻokele ʻōlelo.
  3. Legitimation: Kou ʻae
  4. Ka kamaʻilio ʻana o ka ʻikepili: ʻaʻole e hōʻike ʻia ka ʻikepili i nā ʻaoʻao ʻekolu koe ka mana o ke kānāwai.
  5. Pūnaewele mālama: Pūnaewele i mālama ʻia e Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Nā Kuleana: I kēlā me kēia manawa hiki iā ʻoe ke palena, hoʻōla a kāpae i kāu ʻike.