He aha ka cartography

hoʻomohala palapala

He nui nā lālā koʻikoʻi o Geography e aʻo ana i nā ʻano like ʻole o ko kākou honua. ʻO kekahi o kēia mau lālā he cartography. ʻO ka palapala kiʻi ka mea e kōkua iā mākou e hoʻohua i nā palapala ʻāina a mākou i maʻa ai e huli ai e ʻike i nā wahi. Akā naʻe, nui ka poʻe i ʻike ʻole he aha ka palapala kiʻi ʻaʻole hoʻi he aha kēia aʻo ʻana.

No laila, e hoʻolaʻa mākou i kēia ʻatikala e haʻi iā ʻoe i nā mea āpau e pono ai ʻoe e ʻike e pili ana i ke ʻano o ka cartography a me kona ʻano.

He aha ka cartography

he aha ka palapala 'āina

ʻO ka palapala kiʻi ka lālā o ka palapala honua e pili ana i ka hōʻike kiʻi o nā wahi ʻāina, maʻamau ma nā ʻāpana ʻelua a ma nā huaʻōlelo maʻamau. ʻO ia hoʻi, ʻo ka palapala kiʻi kiʻi ʻo ia ke akamai a me ka ʻepekema o ka hana ʻana, ka nānā ʻana, ke aʻo ʻana, a me ka hoʻomaopopo ʻana i nā palapala ʻāina o kēlā me kēia ʻano. Ma ka hoonui ana, ʻo ia ka pūʻulu palapala ʻāina a me nā palapala like.

ʻO ka palapala kiʻi kiʻi kahi ʻepekema kahiko a hou. Ho'āʻo ʻo ia e hoʻokō i ka makemake o ke kanaka e hōʻike maka i ka ʻili o ka honua, kahi paʻakikī no ka mea ʻo ia ka geoid.

No ka hana ʻana i kēia, ua hoʻohana ka ʻepekema i kahi ʻōnaehana projection i manaʻo ʻia e hana like ma waena o kahi pōʻai a me kahi mokulele. No laila, ua kūkulu ʻo ia i ka ʻike like ʻole o nā ʻāpana ʻāina o ka Honua, kona undulations, kona mau kihi, nā mea a pau e pili ana i kekahi mau ʻāpana a me nā pae mua e koho ai i nā mea nui a ʻaʻole pono.

ʻO ke koʻikoʻi o ka palapala ʻāina

Pono ka palapala kiʻi kiʻi i kēia lā. He mea pono ia no nā hana hoʻonaʻauao āpau, e like me ke kālepa honua a me ka huakaʻi lehulehu intercontinental, no ka mea, koi lākou i ka ʻike liʻiliʻi i kahi o nā mea i ka honua.

No ka nui o nā ana o ka Honua i hiki ʻole ke noʻonoʻo ʻia ma ke ʻano holoʻokoʻa, ʻo ka cartography ka ʻepekema e hiki ai iā mākou ke loaʻa i kahi kokoke loa.

lala o ka palapala kii

he aha ka palapala kiʻi

ʻElua mau lālā: ka cartography maʻamau a me ka cartography kumuhana.

  • palapala kiʻi nui. He mau hiʻohiʻona kēia o nā honua ākea, ʻo ia hoʻi, no nā poʻe a pau a no nā kumu ʻike. ʻO nā palapala ʻāina o ka honua, nā palapala ʻāina o nā ʻāina, nā hana a pau o kēia ʻoihana.
  • Palapala kiʻi kumuhana. Ma ka ʻaoʻao ʻē aʻe, ke kau nei kēia lālā i kāna hōʻike ʻāina i kekahi mau ʻano, kumuhana a i ʻole nā ​​hoʻoponopono kikoʻī, e like me ka waiwai, ka mahiʻai, nā mea kaua, etc. No ka laʻana, hāʻule ka palapala honua o ka hoʻomohala ʻana i ka sorghum i loko o kēia lālā o ka cartography.

E like me kā mākou i ʻōlelo ai i ka hoʻomaka, he hana nui ka cartography: e wehewehe i ko mākou honua i nā kikoʻī me nā pae like ʻole o ka pololei, ka unahi a me nā ʻano like ʻole. Hoʻopili pū ia i ke aʻo ʻana, ka hoʻohālikelike a me ka hoʻohewa ʻana i kēia mau palapala ʻāina a me nā hōʻike i mea e kūkākūkā ai i ko lākou mau ikaika, nāwaliwali, kūʻē a me nā mea hiki ke hoʻomaikaʻi.

Ma hope o nā mea a pau, ʻaʻohe mea kūlohelohe e pili ana i ka palapala ʻāina: he mea ia o ka ʻenehana a me ka moʻomeheu elucidation, he hoʻokaʻawale ʻana o ka hoʻomohala ʻana o ke kanaka ma muli o ke ʻano o ko kākou noʻonoʻo ʻana i ko kākou honua.

nā mea kiʻi kiʻi

Ma ka ʻōlelo ākea, hoʻokumu ka cartography i kāna hana hōʻikeʻike ma kahi pūʻulu o nā mea a me nā manaʻo e hiki ai iā ia ke hoʻonohonoho pono i nā ʻike like ʻole o ka palapala ʻāina e like me kekahi hiʻohiʻona a me ka laulā. ʻO kēia mau mea cartographic:

  • Unahi: No ka mea he nui loa ka honua, i mea e hōʻike ʻia ai me ka ʻike maka, pono mākou e hoʻohaʻahaʻa i nā mea ma ke ʻano maʻamau e mālama i nā ʻāpana. Ma muli o ka unahi i hoʻohana ʻia, e ana ʻia nā mamao maʻamau i nā kilomika ma ke kenimika a i ʻole millimeters, e hoʻokumu ana i kahi maʻamau like.
  • Nā mea like: Hoʻopaʻa ʻia ka Honua i ʻelua pūʻulu laina, ʻo ka hoʻonohonoho mua he mau laina like. Inā ua māhele ʻia ka honua i ʻelua mau ʻāpana e hoʻomaka ana mai ka equator, a laila ʻo ka parallel ka laina e pili ana i kēlā axis horizontal i manaʻo ʻia, e hoʻokaʻawale i ka honua i nā ʻāpana climatic, e hoʻomaka ana mai nā laina ʻē aʻe ʻelua i kapa ʻia ʻo ka tropics (Cancer and Capricorn).
  • Meridiana: ʻO ka lua o nā laina e hoʻokaʻawale i ka honua ma ka hui ʻana, ʻo nā meridian e kū pono ana i nā mea like, ʻo ia ka "axis" a i ʻole meridian waena e hele ana ma ka Royal Greenwich Observatory (i ʻike ʻia ʻo "zero meridian" a i ʻole "Greenwich meridian"). ), London, theoretically coincides with the axis of rotation of the Earth. Mai ia manawa mai, ua māhele ʻia ka honua i ʻelua ʻāpana, i māhele ʻia i kēlā me kēia 30° e ka meridian, e hoʻokaʻawale ana i ka pōʻai o ka Honua i mau ʻāpana.
  • Nā Koina: Ma ka hui ʻana i nā latitudes a me nā meridian, loaʻa iā ʻoe kahi mākia a me kahi ʻōnaehana hoʻonohonoho e hiki ai iā ʻoe ke hoʻonohonoho i ka latitude (i hoʻoholo ʻia e nā latitudes) a me ka longitude (hoʻoholo ʻia e nā meridian) i kēlā me kēia wahi ma ka honua. ʻO ka hoʻohana ʻana o kēia kumumanaʻo pehea e hana ai ka GPS.
  • nā hōʻailona cartographic: Loaʻa i kēia mau palapala ʻāina kā lākou ʻōlelo ponoʻī a hiki ke ʻike i nā hiʻohiʻona hoihoi e like me nā kuʻina kikoʻī. No laila, no ka laʻana, hāʻawi ʻia kekahi mau hōʻailona i nā kūlanakauhale, nā poʻe ʻē aʻe i nā poʻo, nā awa a me nā mokulele, etc.

Kālā kāleka kāleka

Mai ka hiki ʻana mai o ka hoʻololi kikohoʻe ma ka hopena o ke kenekulia XNUMX, he kakaikahi nā ʻepekema i pakele i ka pono e hoʻohana i ka ʻikepili. Ma keia hihia, ʻO ka cartography kikohoʻe ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā satelite a me nā hōʻike kikohoʻe i ka wā e hana ai i nā palapala ʻāina.

No laila, ʻo ka ʻenehana kahiko o ke kaha kiʻi ʻana a me ka paʻi ʻana ma ka pepa i kēia manawa he mea hōʻiliʻili a me ka wā kahiko. ʻO ke kelepona maʻalahi loa o kēia lā hiki ke loaʻa i ka Pūnaewele a no laila i nā palapala kikohoʻe. Aia ka nui o ka ʻike e hiki ke hoʻokomo ʻia, a hiki iā lākou ke hana ma ka launa pū.

palapala kiʻi pilikanaka

palapala ʻāina honua

ʻO ka palapala ʻāina kaiapili he ʻano hui like o ka palapala ʻāina. Ke ʻimi nei ʻo ia e uhaʻi i nā kuʻuna maʻamau a me nā moʻomeheu e pili ana i ka cartography kuʻuna e pili ana i nā kumu kumuhana e pili ana i ke kikowaena honua, koʻikoʻi kūloko a me nā pae hoʻohālikelike politika like ʻole.

No laila, ua ala mai ka palapala 'āina ma muli o ka mana'o 'a'ole hiki ke hana 'ia ka palapala 'āina me ka 'ole o nā kaiaulu, a pono e hana 'ia ka palapala 'āina e like me ka hiki.

Moolelo o ka palapala kii

Ua hānau ʻia ka palapala kiʻi mai ka makemake kanaka e ʻimi a lawe i nā pilikia, ka mea i hana mua loa i ka mōʻaukala: ʻo nā palapala ʻāina mua i ka mōʻaukala mai ka 6000 BC. c., me nā frescoes mai ke kūlanakauhale Anatolian kahiko o Çatal Hüyük. Ma muli paha o ka hoʻokumu ʻia ʻana o nā ala kalepa a me nā hoʻolālā koa no ka naʻi ʻana, no ka mea, ʻaʻohe ʻāina i loaʻa i ia manawa.

ʻO ka palapala ʻāina mua o ka honua, ʻo ia hoʻi, ka palapala ʻāina mua loa o ka honua holoʻokoʻa i ʻike ʻia e ke kaiāulu Komohana mai ka makahiki XNUMXnd AD, ʻo ia ka hana a ka Roma Claudius Ptolemy, malia paha e hoʻokō i ka makemake o ka Emepera Roma haʻaheo e hoʻokaʻawale i kona ākea. palena.

Ma kekahi ʻaoʻao, i ka wā o ka Middle Ages, ʻO ka palapala kiʻi Arabic ka mea i hoʻomohala nui ʻia ma ka honua, a ʻo Kina hoʻi i hoʻomaka mai ka kenekulia XNUMX AD Ua manaʻo ʻia aia ma kahi o 1.100 mau palapala honua i ola mai ka Middle Ages.

ʻO ka pahū maoli o ke kiʻi kiʻi komohana i hana ʻia me ka hoʻonui ʻana o nā aupuni ʻEulopa mua ma waena o nā kenekulia ʻumikumamālima a me ʻumikumamāhiku. I ka wā mua, ua kope ka poʻe kālai kiʻi ʻEulopa i nā palapala ʻāina kahiko a hoʻohana iā lākou i kumu no kā lākou ponoʻī, a hiki i ka hana ʻana o ka panana, ka telescope, a me ka nānā ʻana i makemake nui ai lākou i ka pololei.

No laila, ka honua honua kahiko loa, ʻO ka hōʻike ʻike ʻekolu-dimensional kahiko loa o ke ao hou, i ka makahiki 1492, ka hana a Martín Behaim. Ua hoʻokomo ʻia ʻo ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa (ma lalo o kēlā inoa) i ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa i ka makahiki 1507, a ua ʻike ʻia ka palapala ʻāina mua me ka equator puka i ka makahiki 1527.

Ma ke ala, ua loli nui ke ʻano o ka faila cartographic i ke ʻano. Ua hana lima ʻia nā pakuhi ma ka papahele mua no ka hoʻokele ʻana me ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā hōkū ma ke ʻano he kuhikuhi.

Akā, ua loaʻa koke lākou i ka hiki ʻana mai o nā ʻenehana kiʻi hou e like me ka paʻi a me ka lithography. I kēia mau lā, ʻo ka hiki ʻana mai o nā mea uila a me ka ʻikepili ua hoʻololi mau i ke ʻano o ka hana ʻana i nā palapala ʻāina. Hāʻawi ka Satellite a me nā ʻōnaehana hoʻonohonoho honua i nā kiʻi pololei o ka Honua ma mua o ka wā ma mua.

Manaʻo wau me kēia ʻike hiki iā ʻoe ke aʻo hou e pili ana i ke ʻano o ka cartography a me kona ʻano.


Hoʻopili ka ʻike o ka ʻatikala i kā mākou kumumanaʻo o ka hoʻoponopono hoʻoponopono. E hōʻike i kahi kaomi hemahema ʻaneʻi.

E lilo i mea mua e wehewehe

E waiho i kāu manaʻo

Kāu leka uila aae? E,ʻaʻole e paʻiʻia.

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  1. He kuleana no ka ʻikepili: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Ke kumu o ka ʻikepili: kaohi SPAM, hoʻokele ʻōlelo.
  3. Legitimation: Kou ʻae
  4. Ka kamaʻilio ʻana o ka ʻikepili: ʻaʻole e hōʻike ʻia ka ʻikepili i nā ʻaoʻao ʻekolu koe ka mana o ke kānāwai.
  5. Pūnaewele mālama: Pūnaewele i mālama ʻia e Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Nā Kuleana: I kēlā me kēia manawa hiki iā ʻoe ke palena, hoʻōla a kāpae i kāu ʻike.