he aha ka orbit

he aha ka orbit

Ke kamaʻilio mākou e pili ana i ka astronomy, ka ʻōnaehana solar a me nā hōkū, kamaʻilio mau mākou e pili ana i ka orbit. Akā naʻe, ʻaʻole ʻike nā kānaka a pau he aha ka orbit, pehea ke koʻikoʻi a me kona mau ʻano. Hiki ke ʻōlelo ʻia ma ke ʻano maʻalahi ʻo ka orbit ke alahele o kahi kino lani i ke ao holoʻokoʻa.

Ma kēia ʻatikala e haʻi mākou iā ʻoe i ke ʻano o ka orbit, he aha kona ʻano a me kona koʻikoʻi.

he aha ka orbit

'ōpona lā

Ma ka physics, he orbit ʻo ia ke ala i wehewehe ʻia e kekahi mea a puni i kekahi, a kaʻapuni a puni kēlā ala ma lalo o ka hana a ka ikaika waena, e like me ka umekaumaha o ke kino lani. ʻO kēia ke ala e hele ai kekahi mea i kona neʻe ʻana a puni ke kikowaena o ka ʻumekaumaha i huki ʻia ai, i ka hoʻomaka ʻana me ka ʻole o ka pili ʻana iā ia, akā ʻaʻole i mamao loa mai ia mea.

Mai ke kenekulia XNUMX mai (i ka wā i hoʻokumu ai ʻo Johannes Kepler lāua ʻo Isaac Newton i nā kānāwai koʻikoʻi o ka physics e alakaʻi ana iā lākou), he manaʻo koʻikoʻi ka orbit i ka hoʻomaopopo ʻana i ka neʻe o ke ao holoʻokoʻa, ʻoi aku ka pili o ke kemika lani a me ka subatomic.

Hiki i nā ʻōpuni ke loaʻa nā ʻano like ʻole, elliptical, circular a elongated, a hiki ke parabolic (ke ʻano like me ka parabola) a i ʻole ka hyperbolic (ke ʻano like me ka hyperbola). ʻOiai, aia i kēlā me kēia orbit nā mea Kepler ʻeono:

  • Ka inclination o ka orbital plane, i hoikeia e ka hoailona i.
  • ʻO ka longitude o ka piko piʻi, i hōʻike ʻia ma ka hōʻailona Ω.
  • ʻO ka eccentricity a i ʻole ke kiʻekiʻe o ka haʻalele ʻana mai ka pōʻai, hōʻike ʻia e ka hōʻailona e.
  • Hōʻike ʻia ka axis semimajor, a i ʻole ka hapalua o ke anawaena lōʻihi loa, e ka hōʻailona a.
  • ʻO ka ʻāpana perihelion a i ʻole perihelion, ka huina mai ka piko piʻi a i perihelion, i hōʻike ʻia e ka hōʻailona ω.
  • ʻO ka anomaly anomaly o ka wā, a i ʻole hapa o ka manawa orbital i hala, a i hōʻike ʻia ma ke ʻano he kihi, i hōʻike ʻia e ka hōʻailona M0.

Nā ʻano a me nā mea nui

he aha ka orbit ma ka lewa

ʻO nā hiʻohiʻona nui i hiki ke ʻike ʻia ma ka orbit penei:

  • He ʻokoʻa ko lākou ʻano, akā he oval lākou a pau. ʻo ia hoʻi, he oval ko lākou ʻano.
  • I ka hihia o nā hokele, ua aneane puni nā ʻōpuni.
  • Ma ka orbit, hiki iā ʻoe ke ʻike i nā mea like ʻole nā mahina, nā hōkūhele, nā asteroids a me kekahi mau mea hana kanaka.
  • I loko o ia mea, hiki i nā mea ke kaʻapuni kekahi i kekahi ma muli o ka umekaumaha.
  • Loaʻa i kēlā me kēia orbit e noho ana kona eccentricity, ʻo ia ka nui o ke ala o ka orbit i ʻokoʻa mai kahi pōʻai kūpono.
  • Loaʻa iā lākou nā mea nui like ʻole, e like me inclination, eccentricity, mean anomaly, nodal longitude and perihelion parameters.

ʻO ke koʻikoʻi nui o ka orbit ʻo ia ka hiki ke hoʻokomo ʻia i loko o nā ʻano satelite like ʻole, nāna e mālama i ka nānā ʻana i ka honua, ʻo ia hoʻi ka mea nui i ka loaʻa ʻana o nā pane a me nā ʻike pololei e pili ana i ke aniau, ka moana, ka lewa a me i loko o ka honua. ka honua. Hiki i nā Satellites ke hāʻawi i ka ʻike koʻikoʻi e pili ana i kekahi mau hana kanaka, e like me ka hoʻopau ʻana i ka ululāʻau, a me ke ʻano o ke aniau, e like me ka piʻi ʻana o ka ʻilikai, ka hū ʻana, a me ka haumia o ke kaiapuni o ka honua.

orbit ma kemika

 

Ma ke kemika, ke kamaʻilio nei mākou e pili ana i nā ʻōpuni o nā electrons e neʻe ana a puni ka nucleus ma muli o ke ʻano o nā koina electromagnetic i loaʻa iā lākou (ua hoʻopiʻi maikaʻi ʻia nā electrons, proton a me neutron nuclei i hoʻoili maikaʻi ʻia). ʻAʻole loaʻa i kēia mau electrons nā ala kikoʻī, akā ua wehewehe pinepine ʻia lākou he orbitals i kapa ʻia ʻo atomic orbitals, ma muli o ke ʻano o ka ikehu i loaʻa iā lākou.

Hōʻike ʻia kēlā me kēia orbital atomic e kahi helu a me kahi leka. Hōʻike nā helu (1, 2, 3… a hiki i ka 7) i ka pae ikehu kahi e neʻe ai ka ʻāpana, ʻoiai nā huapalapala (s, p, d a me f) hōʻike i ke ʻano o ka orbit.

ʻEliptika

elliptical orbit

Ma kahi o ka pōʻai, kahakiʻi ka orbit ellipse i ka ellipse, ka pōʻai pālahalaha, elongated. ʻO kēia kiʻi, ʻo ka ellipse, ʻelua mau kiko, Aia ma hea nā koʻi waena o nā ʻāpana ʻelua i hana ʻia; Eia kekahi, ʻoi aku ka nui o kēia ʻano orbit ma mua o ka ʻole a ʻoi aku ka liʻiliʻi ma mua o hoʻokahi (ua like ka 0 me ka orbit pōʻai, ua like ka 1 me ka orbit parabolic).

Loaʻa i kēlā me kēia orbit elliptical ʻelua mau kikoʻī:

  • Aʻe aʻe ʻO ke kiko ma ke ala o ka orbit (ma kekahi o nā kikoʻī ʻelua) e pili kokoke ana i ke kino waena e hoʻopuni ana i ka orbit.
  • Ma kahi mamao aku. ʻO ke kiko ma ke ala orbital (ma kekahi o nā kikoʻī ʻelua) kahi mamao loa mai ka leo kikowaena o ka orbit i kuhi ʻia.

Orbit pūnaewele puni honua

E like me ka hapa nui o nā ʻōnaehana honua, ʻoi aʻe a liʻiliʻi paha nā orbit i wehewehe ʻia e nā hōkū o ka Pūnaehana Lā. Aia ma waenakonu ka hoku o ka ʻōnaehana, ko kākou lā, nona ka umekaumaha e hoʻoneʻe i nā hīkū a me nā kometa ʻAʻohe pili pololei i ka hōkū o nā ʻōpuni parabolic a i ʻole hyperbolic a puni ka lā. No lākou, hahai pū nā satelite o kēlā me kēia honua i ka orbit o kēlā me kēia honua, e like me ka mahina me ka Honua.

Eia nō naʻe, huki pū kekahi i kekahi i nā hōkū, e hana ana i nā gravity perturbations e hoʻololi i ka eccentricity o kā lākou orbit me ka manawa a me kekahi. No ka laʻana, ʻo Mercury ka honua me ka orbit eccentric loa, no ka mea kokoke loa i ka lā, akā. Aia ʻo Mars ma kahi ʻelua, ma kahi mamao aku mai ka lā. Ma ka ʻaoʻao ʻē aʻe, ʻo nā orbit o Venus a me Neptune ka mea liʻiliʻi loa.

ʻōpuni honua

ʻO ka Honua, e like me kona mau hoalauna, ke kaʻapuni a puni ka lā ma kahi orbit elliptic liʻiliʻi, a ma kahi o 365 mau lā (hoʻokahi makahiki), a mākou e kapa nei i ka neʻe unuhi. Aia kēia neʻe ʻana ma kahi o 67.000 mau kilomita i kēlā me kēia hola.

I kēia manawa, ʻehā mau ʻōpuni a puni ka honua, e like me nā satelite artificial:

  • Baja (LEO). 200 a 2.000 kilomika mai ka ili o ka honua.
  • Mean (OEM). 2.000 a 35.786 km mai ka ili o ka honua.
  • Kiʻekiʻe (HEO). 35.786 a 40.000 kilomika mai ka ili o ka honua.
  • Geostationary (GEO). 35.786 kilomita mai ka ili o ka honua. He orbit kēia i hui pū ʻia me ka equator o ka Honua, me ka ʻole eccentricity, a i ka mea nānā ma ka Honua, ʻike ʻia ka mea i ka lewa.

Manaʻo wau me kēia ʻike hiki iā ʻoe ke aʻo hou aʻe e pili ana i ke ʻano o ka orbit a me ke ʻano o kona ʻano.


Hoʻopili ka ʻike o ka ʻatikala i kā mākou kumumanaʻo o ka hoʻoponopono hoʻoponopono. E hōʻike i kahi kaomi hemahema ʻaneʻi.

E lilo i mea mua e wehewehe

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  1. He kuleana no ka ʻikepili: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Ke kumu o ka ʻikepili: kaohi SPAM, hoʻokele ʻōlelo.
  3. Legitimation: Kou ʻae
  4. Ka kamaʻilio ʻana o ka ʻikepili: ʻaʻole e hōʻike ʻia ka ʻikepili i nā ʻaoʻao ʻekolu koe ka mana o ke kānāwai.
  5. Pūnaewele mālama: Pūnaewele i mālama ʻia e Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Nā Kuleana: I kēlā me kēia manawa hiki iā ʻoe ke palena, hoʻōla a kāpae i kāu ʻike.