Awāwa ʻo Glacier

glacier ma iceland

ʻO nā awāwa glacier, ʻike ʻia hoʻi ʻo nā awāwa hau, e pili ana i nā awāwa kahi e kaʻapuni ai nā glacier nui a i ʻole i kaʻahele ʻia i hoʻokahi manawa, e waiho ana i nā ʻano ʻāina glacial. A awāwa glacier He mea koʻikoʻi ia no ke ʻano olaola o nā kaiaola a me ke kaulike kaiaola.

No kēia kumu, e haʻi mākou iā ʻoe i nā mea āpau e pono ai ʻoe e ʻike e pili ana i ke awāwa glacial, kona mau hiʻohiʻona geomorphology.

He aha ke awāwa glacial

awāwa cantabrian

ʻO nā awāwa glacial, i kapa ʻia ʻo glacial troughs, ʻo ia nā awāwa kahi e ʻike ai mākou ua haʻalele lākou i nā ʻano kōkua maʻamau o nā glaciers.

I ka pōkole, ua like nā awāwa glacial me nā glaciers. Hoʻokumu ʻia nā awāwa glacial i ka wā e hōʻiliʻili ai ka nui o ka hau i nā ʻāpana glacial. ʻO ka hau mai nā papa haʻahaʻa e neʻe i lalo o ke awāwa, kahi i lilo ai i loko.

ʻO kekahi o nā hiʻohiʻona nui o nā awāwa glacial ʻo ia he ʻāpana keʻa like ʻole, ʻo ia ke kumu i kapa ʻia ai lākou ʻo glacial troughs. ʻO kēia hiʻohiʻona ka hiʻohiʻona nui e hiki ai i ka poʻe kālaihonua ke hoʻokaʻawale i kēia mau ʻano awāwa kahi i paheʻe ai ka hau nui a paheʻe paha. ʻO nā hiʻohiʻona ʻē aʻe o nā awāwa glacial ʻo ko lākou ʻaʻahu a me nā hōʻailona o ka ʻeli ʻana, ma muli o ka hakakā ʻana o ka hau a me ka huki ʻana o nā mea.

ʻO nā glacier kahiko ma ka Honua i waiho i nā mea i hoʻopau ʻia e ka hau. He ʻokoʻa loa kēia mau mea, a he ʻano like ʻole ke ʻano nā ʻano moraine, e like me nā moraine lalo, nā moraine ʻaoʻao, nā moraine hina, a ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi, ma waena kahi e hana mau ʻia ai ka loko glacial kaulana. ʻO nā hiʻohiʻona o nā mea hope loa nā loko glacial hiki iā mākou ke loaʻa ma nā ʻaoʻao o nā Alps ʻEulopa (i kapa ʻia ʻo Como, Mayor, Garda, Geneva, Constanta, etc.) a i ʻole ma kekahi mau wahi o waena o Suedena a me nā mea ʻē aʻe.

Dynamics o kahi awāwa glacial

hiʻona awāwa glacial

E pili ana i ke ʻano erosion o nā glaciers, he mea nui e kuhikuhi i nā glaciers he erosive nui loa a hiki ke hana ma ke ʻano he conveyor belts no nā lako o nā nui āpau i hāʻawi ʻia e nā pali, e lawe ana iā lākou i nā awāwa.

Eia hoʻi, he nui ka wai hehee i loko o ka glacier, hiki ke kaapuni me ka wikiwiki nui i loko o nā tunnels i loko o ka glacier, e hoʻouka ana i nā mea ma lalo o ka glacier, a ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi o kēia mau au subglacial. ʻO ka mea i lawe ʻia e hana i ka abrasion, a hiki ke ʻoki ʻia nā pōhaku i loko o ka glacier i kahi hui maikaʻi o ka palaoa palolo a me ka glacier.

Hiki i nā glaciers ke hana i ʻekolu mau ala nui a ʻo lākou: ka hoʻomaka ʻana o ka glacial, abrasion, thrust.

I ka ʻeli ʻana i nā ʻāpana haʻihaʻi, hiki i ka ikaika o ke kahawai hau ke hoʻoneʻe a hāpai i nā ʻāpana nui o ka pōhaku i haki. ʻO ka ʻoiaʻiʻo, ʻaʻole maʻamau ka ʻaoʻao longitudinal o ka moena glacier, me nā ʻāpana e hoʻonui a hohonu i ke ʻano o nā poho i kapa ʻia ʻo nā ʻauwaha a i ʻole nā ​​​​pahu, i hoʻohonu ʻia e ka ʻeli ʻana i nā pōhaku liʻiliʻi a ʻoi aku ke kūpaʻa. Hoʻopili ʻia ka ʻāpana a kapa ʻia he latch a i ʻole paepae.

Ma ka ʻāpana keʻa, ua hoʻokumu ʻia nā paepae i nā pōhaku ʻoi aku ka palahalaha ma kahi kiʻekiʻe, i kapa ʻia ʻo nā poʻohiwi. Hoʻopili ʻia ka abrasion i ka wili, ʻokiʻoki, a me ka wili ʻana o ka pōhaku moe e nā ʻāpana pōhaku i lawe ʻia e ka hau. Hoʻokumu kēia i nā ʻōpala a me nā grooves. I ka poni, ʻo ia nā mea ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi, e like me ke one ma ka pōhaku.

I ka manawa like, ma muli o ka abrasion, ʻO nā pōhaku i ʻoki ʻia, e hana ana i ka pālolo a me ka lepo, i kapa ʻia ʻo ka pauka hau ma muli o ka nui o ka palaoa, aia i loko o ka wai hoʻoheheʻe ʻia a me ke ʻano o ka waiū.

Ma ke kuʻi ʻana, lawe a hoʻoneʻe ka glacier iā ia iho i nā mea decomposing i wāwahi ʻia a hoʻololi ʻia e like me ka mea i hōʻike ʻia ma luna.

nā ʻano o ka ʻeli ʻana

awāwa glacier

Ma waena o lākou ua ʻike ʻia circuses, tarn, kualapa, horn, neck. I ka hoʻohālike ʻana i nā awāwa glacial, makemake lākou e noho i nā awāwa mua, e hoʻonui a hohonu i ke ʻano U. Ua hoʻoponopono a hoʻomaʻamaʻa nā glaciers i nā pihi o nā awāwa mua a me nā puʻu pōhaku i hoʻopau ʻia, e hana ana i nā puʻu triangular nui a i ʻoki ʻia.

Ma ka ʻaoʻao lōʻihi maʻamau o ke awāwa glacial, ʻo nā kīʻaha palahalaha a me nā hoʻonui e hahai ana kekahi i kekahi, e hana ana i nā kaulahao o nā loko i loaʻa ka inoa o ko mākou mau mākua ke hoʻopiha nā kīʻaha i ka wai.

No lākou, ʻO ke awāwa ʻo Hanging he awāwa kahawai kahiko o kahi glacier nui. Ua wehewehe ʻia lākou no ka mea e pili ana ka ʻili o nā glaciers i ka mānoanoa o ka ʻili hau, a hiki i nā glaciers ke hoʻohonu i ko lākou mau awāwa akā ʻaʻole i ko lākou mau kahawai.

Hoʻokumu ʻia nā Fjords i ka wā e komo ai ka wai kai i nā awāwa glacial, e like me nā mea ma Chile, Norewai, Greenland, Labrador, a me nā fjord hema loa ma Alaska. Hoʻopili pinepine ʻia lākou me nā hewa a me nā ʻokoʻa lithological. Hiki lākou i kahi hohonu, e like me ke kahawai Messier ma Chile, kahi He 1228 mika ka hohonu. Hiki ke wehewehe ʻia kēia ma muli o ka ʻeli ʻana nui ʻana o ka hau hau ma lalo o ka ʻilikai.

Hiki nō hoʻi i ka Glaciation ke hoʻohālike i nā pōhaku i hana ʻia i nā pōhaku e like me nā hipa. ʻO ka nui o lākou mai hoʻokahi mika a hiki i ʻumi mau mika a kau ʻia ma ke ala o ke kahe ʻana o ka hau. ʻO ka ʻaoʻao o ka pūnāwai hau he ʻano maʻemaʻe ma muli o ka hopena wili, aʻo ka ʻaoʻao ʻē aʻe he angular a me ka maʻamau ʻole ma muli o ka wehe ʻana i ka pōhaku.

Nā ʻano o ka hōʻiliʻili

Ua emi ka hau mai ka wā hau hope loa, ma kahi o 18.000 mau makahiki aku nei, e hōʻike ana i kahi kōkua hoʻoilina ma nā ʻāpana āpau a lākou i noho ai i ka wā hau hope loa.

ʻO nā waihona glacial he mau waihona i hoʻopaʻa ʻia me nā mea i waiho pololei ʻia e nā glaciers, me ka ʻole o ke ʻano stratified a he mau ʻāpana ko lākou mau ʻāpana. Mai ka manaʻo o ka nui o ka palaoa, he heterogeneous lākou, mai ka palaoa glacial a hiki i nā hui paʻa ʻole i lawe ʻia ma 500 km mai ko lākou ʻāina kumu, e like me nā mea i loaʻa ma Central Park ma New York; ma Kile, ma San Alfonso, ma ka pahu pahu Maipo. Ke hui pū kēia mau waihona, hana lākou i nā tillites.

Hoʻohana ʻia ka huaʻōlelo moraine i nā ʻano he nui o nā mauna. Nui nā ʻano moraine a me nā puʻu lōʻihi i kapa ʻia ʻo drumlins. ʻO ka moraine mua ka puʻu ma ke alo o kahi glacier e kūkulu ʻia ana i loko o kahi arc ke paʻa ka glacier ma kahi kūlana no nā makahiki a i ʻole mau makahiki. Inā hoʻomau ke kahe ʻana o ka glacier, e hoʻomau ka ʻili ʻana o ka sediment ma kēia pā. Inā e emi iho ka hau, waiho ʻia kahi ʻāpana o ka moraine ʻoluʻolu, i kapa ʻia ʻo basal moraine, e like me nā ʻāina wai o ka ʻāina ʻo Great Lakes o ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa. Ma ka ʻaoʻao ʻē aʻe, inā hoʻomau ka haʻalele ʻana o ka glacier, hiki ke hoʻopaʻa hou ʻia kona ʻaoʻao alakaʻi, e hana i kahi moraine hoʻi.

He ʻano maʻamau ka moraine o ke awāwa a lawe i ka sediment ma nā ʻaoʻao o ke awāwa, e waiho ana i nā kualono lōʻihi. Hoʻokumu ʻia kahi moraine waena ma kahi e hui ai nā moraine ʻaoʻao ʻelua, e like me ka hui ʻana o nā awāwa ʻelua.

ʻO nā pahu pahu he mau puʻu maʻemaʻe a lohi i haku ʻia me nā waihona moraine i waiho ʻia e nā glacier continental. Hiki iā lākou ke piʻi i 50 mau mika a me hoʻokahi kilomita ka lōʻihi, akā ʻoi aku ka liʻiliʻi o ka hapa nui. Ma Ontario, Kanada, loaʻa lākou ma nā kula me nā haneli pahu pahu. ʻO ka hope, ʻike ʻia nā ʻano i haku ʻia me nā ʻāpana glacial stratified e like me kame, kame terraces a me nā eskers.

Manaʻo wau me kēia ʻike hiki iā ʻoe ke aʻo hou e pili ana i ke awāwa glacial a me kona ʻano.


Hoʻopili ka ʻike o ka ʻatikala i kā mākou kumumanaʻo o ka hoʻoponopono hoʻoponopono. E hōʻike i kahi kaomi hemahema ʻaneʻi.

E lilo i mea mua e wehewehe

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  1. He kuleana no ka ʻikepili: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Ke kumu o ka ʻikepili: kaohi SPAM, hoʻokele ʻōlelo.
  3. Legitimation: Kou ʻae
  4. Ka kamaʻilio ʻana o ka ʻikepili: ʻaʻole e hōʻike ʻia ka ʻikepili i nā ʻaoʻao ʻekolu koe ka mana o ke kānāwai.
  5. Pūnaewele mālama: Pūnaewele i mālama ʻia e Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Nā Kuleana: I kēlā me kēia manawa hiki iā ʻoe ke palena, hoʻōla a kāpae i kāu ʻike.