ʻO ke kumumanaʻo o ka ʻauheʻe Continental

Holo ʻaʻano Continental

I ka wā i hala, ua manaʻo ʻia nā papa ʻāina i paʻa mau no nā makahiki miliona. ʻAʻohe mea i ʻike ʻia ua hana ʻia ka iwi honua me nā pā e neʻe ai i ke aloha i nā au hoʻoluliluli o ka ʻahu. Eia naʻe, ua noi ʻia ka ʻepekema ʻo Alfred Wegener ke kumumanaʻo o ka ʻauheʻe Continental. Ua ʻōlelo kēia manaʻo ua ʻauheʻe nā ʻāina i nā miliona o nā makahiki a ke hana nei lākou pēlā.

Mai ka mea hiki ke manaʻo ʻia, he kipi kēia kuhi manaʻo no ka honua o ka ʻepekema a me ka honua. Makemake ʻoe e aʻo i nā mea āpau e pili ana i ka ʻāpana Continental a ʻike i kāna mau mea huna?

ʻO ke kumumanaʻo o ka ʻauheʻe Continental

ʻĀinapuniʻole

Kuhi kēia kumumanaʻo i ka neʻe o nā papa i kēia manawa e kākoʻo ana i nā ʻāina a neʻe i nā makahiki he mau miliona. Ma loko o ka mōʻaukala kālaihonua o ka Honua, ʻaʻole mau nā pae ʻāina i ke kūlana like. Aia kekahi mau hōʻike e ʻike ai ma hope i kōkua iā Wegener e hōʻole i kāna kumumanaʻo.

ʻO ka neʻe ma muli o ka hoʻomau mau ʻana o nā mea hou mai ka ʻahu. Hoʻokumu ʻia kēia mea i ka pā kai. I kēia ala, hoʻoikaika ka mea hou i ka mea e kū nei a hoʻoneʻe i nā ʻāina.

Inā ʻoe e nānā pono i ke kinona o nā ʻāina āpau, me he mea lā ua hui ʻia ʻo ʻAmelika a me ʻApelika. I kēia ua ʻike ka mea akeakamai ʻO Francis Bacon i ka makahiki 1620. Eia naʻe, ʻaʻole ʻo ia i kuhi i kahi kumumanaʻo i noho mau ai kēia mau ʻāina i ka wā i hala.

Ua ʻōlelo ʻia e Antonio Snider, he ʻAmelika i noho i Palisa. I ka makahiki 1858 ua hāpai aʻe ʻo ia i ka hiki ke neʻe nā ʻāina ʻĀinapuniʻole.

 

Ua hala ia ma 1915 i ka wā i hoʻopuka ai ka meteorologist Kelemania Alfred Wegener i kāna puke i kapa ʻia "Ke kumu o nā ʻāina a me nā moana". I loko o laila ua hōʻike ʻo ia i ke kumumanaʻo holoʻokoʻa o ka ʻauheʻe Continental. No laila, manaʻo ʻia ʻo Wegener ka mea kākau o ka manaʻo.

I loko o ka puke ua wehewehe ʻo ia i ka mālama ʻana o ko mākou Honua i kekahi ʻano supercontcent. ʻO ia, nā ʻāinapuniʻole āpau a mākou i kēia lā i hui pū ʻia e hana hoʻokahi. Ua kapa ʻo ia i kēnā supercontcent Pangea. Ma muli o ka ikaika o loko o ka Honua, e haki ʻo Pangea a neʻe i kahi ʻāpana. Ma hope o ka hala ʻana o miliona mau makahiki, noho ka ʻāina ʻo ʻAinapuniʻole i ke kūlana e hana nei i kēia lā.

Nā hōʻike a me nā hōʻike

hoʻonohonoho o nā ʻāina i ka wā i hala

Wahi a kēia kumumanaʻo, i ka wā e hiki mai ana, he mau miliona mau makahiki mai kēia manawa, e hui hou nā ʻāinapuniʻole. He aha ka mea nui e hōʻike ai i kēia kumumanaʻo me ka hōʻoia a me ka hōʻike.

Nā hoʻāʻo Paleomagnetic

ʻO nā hōʻike mua i manaʻoʻiʻo iā ia ʻo ia ka wehewehe o ka magneto paleo. ʻĀina mākua o ka Honua ʻaʻole ia ma ka ʻaoʻao i maʻa mau. ʻO kēlā me kēia manawa pinepine, ua hoʻohuli ka ʻume mākenēki. He aha ka mea ma ka hema kukulu pou i ka akau, a me ka versa. ʻIke ʻia kēia no ka mea he nui nā pōhaku ʻike kiʻekiʻe o nā metala kiʻekiʻe i loaʻa i kahi hoʻonohonoho i ka pou manamana o kēia manawa. Ua loaʻa nā pōhaku ʻume mākeneka nona ka pou ʻākau e kuhikuhi i ka kia hema. No laila, i ka wā kahiko, he ala ʻē aʻe ia.

ʻAʻole hiki ke ana ʻia kēia paleomagnetism a hiki i nā makahiki 1950. ʻOiai hiki ke ana ʻia, ua lawe ʻia nā hopena nāwaliwali loa. Eia nō naʻe, ua mālama ʻia ke ana ʻana o kēia mau ana i kahi o nā ʻāina. Hiki iā ʻoe ke haʻi i kēia ma ka nānā ʻana i ke anaina a me ka makahiki o nā pōhaku. I kēia ala, hiki ke hōʻike ʻia ua hui pū ʻia nā ʻāinapuniʻole āpau.

Nā hoʻāʻo olaola

ʻO kekahi o nā hoʻokolohua i haʻohaʻo i nā mea ʻoi aku ma mua o hoʻokahi nā mea olaola. Loaʻa nā ʻano holoholona a me nā mea kanu ma nā ʻāina ʻokoʻa. ʻAʻole hiki ke noʻonoʻo i kēlā ʻano i neʻe ʻole i ka neʻe hiki ke neʻe mai kahi ʻāina a i kekahi ʻāina ʻē aʻe. ʻO ka mea e hōʻike ana i ka manawa hoʻokahi aia lākou ma ka pae ʻāina. Ke hoʻopuehu nei nā laha me ke kaʻina o ka manawa, i ka neʻe ʻana o nā ʻāina.

Eia kekahi, ma Aferika komohana a me ʻAmelika Hema hikina loaʻa nā hana pōhaku o ke ʻano like a me ka makahiki.

ʻO kekahi mea i hoʻokumu i kēia mau hoʻokolohua ka loaʻa ʻana o nā fossil o ka fern deciduous like ma ʻAmelika Hema, ʻApelika Hema, Antarctica, India a me Australia. Pehea e hiki ai ke ʻano fern hoʻokahi mai nā wahi like ʻole? Ua hoʻoholo ʻia ua noho pū lāua ma Pangea. Ua loaʻa kekahi mau puʻuhonua Lystrosaurus reptile ma ʻApelika Hema, India a me Antarctica, a me nā mōʻī Mesosaurus ma Brazil a me ʻApelika Hema.

Pili nā flora a me nā holoholona i nā wahi like like i ulu a kaʻawale. I ka lōʻihi o ka mamao ma waena o nā ʻāina nui, ua hoʻopili ʻia kēlā me kēia ʻano i nā hanana hou.

Nā hoʻāʻo honua

Ua ʻōlelo ʻia aʻe nei nā kihi o pili pono nā papa ʻaina o ʻApelika a me ʻAmelika. A hoʻokahi lākou. Eia hou, ʻaʻohe o lākou ʻano like o ke ʻano nane, akā ʻo ka hoʻomau ʻana o nā pae mauna o ka ʻāina ʻAmelika Hema a me ko ʻApelika. I kēia lā ke kuleana o ka Moana ʻAkelanika no ka hoʻokaʻawale ʻana i kēia mau pae mauna.

Nā hoʻāʻo Paleoclimatic

Ua kōkua ke aniau i ka wehewehe ʻana i kēia manaʻo. ʻO nā hōʻike o ke kumu erosive like i loaʻa ma nā ʻāina ʻokoʻa. I kēia manawa, kēlā me kēia panalāʻau he aupuni ponoʻī o ka ua, ka makani, nā mahana, a pēlā aku. Eia nō naʻe, i ka manawa i hoʻokumu ʻia ai nā ʻāina āpau āpau, aia kahi ʻano i hoʻohui ʻia.

Eia kekahi, ua loaʻa nā waihona Moraine like ma ʻApelika Hema, ʻAmelika Hema, India a me ʻAukekulia.

Nā paepae o ka ʻāpana Continental

ʻO ke kumumanaʻo o ka ʻauheʻe Continental

Ke holo nei ʻo Continental drift ma loko o ka mōʻaukala o ka honua. Wahi a ke kūlana o nā ʻāina ma ka honua, ua like ke ola i kekahi ala a i ʻole kekahi. ʻO kēia ke kumu o ka hiamoe ʻāinapuniʻole i ʻoi aku ka nui o nā pae i hōʻailona i ka hoʻomaka o ka hoʻokumu ʻana o nā ʻāina a, me ia, o nā ala hou o ke ola. Hoʻomanaʻo mākou i nā mea ola e pono e hoʻopili i ke kaiapuni a, ke hilinaʻi nei i kā lākou kūlana o ka manawa, ua kahakaha ʻia ka evolution e nā ʻano like ʻole.

E kālailai ana mākou i nā pae nui o ka ʻauheʻe Continental:

  • Ma kahi o 1100 biliona mau makahiki i hala aku nei: ka hoʻokumu ʻana o ka supercontcent mua ma ka honua i kapa ʻia ʻo Rodinia. Kūlike ʻole i ka manaʻo lehulehu, ʻaʻole ʻo Pangea ka mea mua. Eia nō naʻe, ʻaʻole hiki ke kāpae ʻia ka hiki ke noho nā ʻāina ʻē aʻe ma mua, ʻoiai ʻaʻole lawa nā hōʻike.
  • Ma kahi o 600 biliona mau makahiki i hala aku nei: Lawe ʻo Rodinia ma kahi o 150 miliona mau makahiki i ka ʻāpana a ua hoʻokumu ʻia kahi supercontcent lua i kapa ʻia ʻo Pannotia. ʻOi aku ka lōʻihi o ka lōʻihi, he 60 miliona mau makahiki wale nō.
  • Ma kahi o 540 miliona mau makahiki aku nei, Ua māhele ʻia ʻo Pannotia i Gondwana a me Proto-Laurasia.
  • Ma kahi o 500 biliona mau makahiki i hala aku nei: Ua mahele ʻia ʻo Proto-Laurasia i 3 mau ʻāina hou i kapa ʻia ʻo Laurentia, Siberia a me Baletika. Ma kēia ala, ua hana kēia mahele i 2 mau kai hou i ʻike ʻia ʻo Iapetus a me Khanty.
  • Ma kahi o 485 biliona mau makahiki i hala aku nei: Ua hoʻokaʻawale ʻia ʻo Avalonia mai Gondwana (ka ʻāina e pili ana i ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa, Nova Scotia, a me ʻEnelani. Ua kūʻē ka Baltic, Laurentia, a me Avalonia e hana iā Euramérica.
  • Ma kahi o 300 biliona mau makahiki i hala aku nei: he 2 wale nō mau ʻāina nui. Ma ka lima hoʻokahi, loaʻa iā mākou ʻo Pangea. ua kū ma kahi o 225 miliona mau makahiki i hala. ʻO Pangea ke ola o kahi mana nui kahi e hoʻolaha ai nā mea ola āpau. Inā mākou e nānā i ka pālākiō manawa geological, ʻike mākou i kēia supercontcent i ka wā Permian. Ma ka ʻaoʻao ʻē aʻe, aia iā mākou ʻo Siberia. Ua hoʻopuni ʻia nā ʻāina ʻelua e ka Moana Panthalassa, ʻo ke kai wale nō i kēia manawa.
  • ʻO Laurasia lāua ʻo Gondwana: Ma muli o ka haki o Pangea, ua hoʻokumu ʻia ʻo Laurasia a me Gondwana. Ua hoʻomaka pū ʻo Antarctica e hana ma loko o ka wā Triassic. Ua hana ʻia 200 miliona mau makahiki i hala aku nei a ua hoʻomaka ka ʻokoʻa o nā ʻano o nā mea ola.

Hoʻolaha o nā mea ola i kēia manawa

ʻOiai ua hoʻokaʻawale ʻia nā ʻāinapuniʻole i kēlā me kēia ʻano i loaʻa i kahi lālā hou i ka evolution, aia kekahi mau ʻano me nā ʻano like ma nā ʻāina ʻokoʻa. Hāpai kēia mau anamanaʻo i kahi ʻano like me nā lāhui mai nā ʻāina ʻē aʻe. ʻO ka ʻokoʻa ma waena o lākou ua ulu lākou i ka manawa ma ka loaʻa ʻana iā lākou iho i nā hoʻonohonoho hou. ʻO kahi laʻana o kēia ka moʻo mānoanoa i loaʻa ma ʻAmelika ʻĀkau a me Eurasia.

Me kēia mau hōʻike āpau, ua hoʻāʻo ʻo Wegener e pale aku i kāna kumumanaʻo. ʻO kēia mau paio āpau e hōʻoiaʻiʻo ana i ke kaiāulu ʻepekema. Ua ʻike maoli ʻo ia i kahi loaʻa nui e ʻae ai i kahi breakthrough i ka ʻepekema.

ʻAʻohe o kāu kahua aniani i kēia manawa?
Inā makemake nui ʻoe i ka honua o ka meteorology, e kiʻi i kekahi o nā kikowaena manawa a mākou e paipai ai a hoʻohana i nā makana i loaʻa.
Nā keʻena Meteorological

Hoʻopili ka ʻike o ka ʻatikala i kā mākou kumumanaʻo o ka hoʻoponopono hoʻoponopono. E hōʻike i kahi kaomi hemahema ʻaneʻi.

ʻO kahi manaʻo, waiho i kāu

E waiho i kāu manaʻo

Kāu leka uila aae? E,ʻaʻole e paʻiʻia. i hāliu aku i koi 'ia kula *

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  1. He kuleana no ka ʻikepili: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Ke kumu o ka ʻikepili: kaohi SPAM, hoʻokele ʻōlelo.
  3. Legitimation: Kou ʻae
  4. Ka kamaʻilio ʻana o ka ʻikepili: ʻaʻole e hōʻike ʻia ka ʻikepili i nā ʻaoʻao ʻekolu koe ka mana o ke kānāwai.
  5. Pūnaewele mālama: Pūnaewele i mālama ʻia e Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Nā Kuleana: I kēlā me kēia manawa hiki iā ʻoe ke palena, hoʻōla a kāpae i kāu ʻike.

  1.   Juan Pablo ia

    Makemake au iā ia, manaʻo wau he maikaʻi loa ke kumumanaʻo a manaʻo wau ua hui ʻia ʻo ʻAmelika a me ʻApelika no ka mea he mea nane ia. 🙂