Volcanoes a Iceland

volcanoes a cikin tsibirin

Iceland, ƙasar ƙanƙara da wuta, aljanna ce ta halitta. Ƙarfin sanyi na dusar ƙanƙara da yanayin arctic suna cin karo da zafi mai fashewa na duniya. Sakamakon shine duniyar ban mamaki mai ban sha'awa a cikin kyakkyawan yanayin da ba zai iya kwatantawa ba. Ba tare da tsaunukan Icelandic ba, duk wannan ba zai yiwu ba. Ikon volcanoes a cikin tsibirin Yana iya ayyana yanayin wannan ƙasa fiye da kowane dutsen mai aman wuta, yana haifar da filayen lava marasa iyaka da gansakuka, faffadan filayen yashi baki, da tsaunin tuddai da manyan ramuka.

Saboda haka, za mu keɓe wannan labarin don gaya muku duk abin da kuke buƙatar sani game da tsaunuka masu aman wuta a Iceland da halayensu da muhimmancinsu.

Volcanoes a Iceland

volcano a cikin dusar ƙanƙara

Har ila yau, dakaru masu aman wuta da ke karkashin kasa sun haifar da wasu abubuwan al'ajabi da suka shahara a kasar, kamar maɓuɓɓugan zafi na halitta da kuma fashewar geysers. Bugu da ƙari, ana iya ganin tasirin fashewar abubuwan da suka gabata a cikin tsaunin dutse da aka kafa ta ginshiƙan ginshiƙan lava da ginshiƙan basalt hexagonal.

Dubban mutane ne suka yi tururuwa zuwa kasar Iceland don ganin duwatsun dutsen da ke cikinta da kuma mu'ujizar da suka kirkira kuma suka ci gaba da haifar da su. Yayin fashewar dutsen mai aman wuta, ya kamata mu kasance da sha'awar samun dama duba daya daga cikin abubuwan ban mamaki da ban mamaki a duniya. Idan akai la'akari da cewa yana da mahimmanci ga yanayin Iceland da yanayin masana'antu har ma da yanayin ƙasar, mun tattara wannan jagorar mai iko ga tsaunuka na Iceland, kuma muna fatan zai iya amsa duk tambayoyin da za ku iya tambayi kanku game da su. karfin wutar lantarkin nan.

Nawa ne?

volcanoes a cikin halayen tsibirin

A Iceland, akwai kusan tsaunuka 130 masu aman wuta da tsaunuka masu barci. Akwai kusan tsarin tsaunuka 30 masu aiki a ƙarƙashin tsibirin, sai dai a yammacin Fjords, a duk fadin kasar.

Dalilin da ya sa West Fjords ba su da aikin volcanic shine cewa shi ne mafi dadewa na yankin Icelandic. An kafa shi kimanin shekaru miliyan 16 da suka wuce kuma tun daga lokacin ya ɓace daga tsakiyar Atlantic Range. Don haka, yankin West Fjords shi ne yanki daya tilo da ke bukatar wutar lantarki don dumama ruwa a maimakon ruwan kasa.

Ayyukan volcanic a Iceland ya faru ne saboda wurin ƙasar kai tsaye a tsakiyar tsaunin Atlantika wanda ya raba faranti na tectonic na Arewacin Amurka da Eurasian. Iceland na ɗaya daga cikin ƴan wurare a duniya da ake iya ganin wannan tudu sama da matakin teku. Wadannan faranti na tectonic sun bambanta, ma'ana sun rabu da juna. Yin haka, magma da ke cikin rigar zai bayyana ya cika sararin da ake ƙirƙira kuma ya bayyana a cikin nau'in fashewar dutsen mai aman wuta. Wannan al'amari yana faruwa ne tare da tsaunuka kuma ana iya lura da shi a wasu tsibiran volcanic, kamar Azores ko Santa Elena.

Tsakanin Tsakanin Atlantika yana ratsa duk ƙasar Iceland, a haƙiƙanin gaskiya yawancin tsibiri yana cikin nahiyar Amurka. Akwai wurare da yawa a cikin wannan ƙasa inda ake iya ganin ɓangarorin ɓangarorin, ciki har da yankin Reykjanes da yankin Mývatn, amma mafi kyau shine Thingvellir. A can, za ku iya tafiya ta cikin kwaruruka tsakanin faranti kuma ku ga ganuwar nahiyoyi biyu a fili a kowane gefen filin shakatawa na kasa. Saboda bambancin da ke tsakanin faranti, wannan kwari yana fadada kusan 2,5 cm kowace shekara.

Yawan fashewa

iceland da fashewar ta

Ba a iya hasashen fashewar aman wuta a Iceland, amma yana faruwa akai-akai. Ba a yi shekaru goma ba tun farkon shekarun XNUMX ba tare da fashewa ba, ko da yake yuwuwar faruwar su cikin sauri ko fiye da haka ba zato ba tsammani.

Ƙarshe da aka sani da fashewa a Iceland ya faru ne a Holuhraun a cikin tsaunuka a cikin 2014. Grímsfjall kuma ya rubuta wani ɗan gajeren fashewa a 2011, yayin da mafi shaharar dutsen Eyjafjallajökull ya haifar da matsala mai tsanani a 2010. Dalilin da ake amfani da kalmar 'sanan' shi ne saboda Ana zargin cewa an sami fashewar aman wuta da yawa a sassa daban-daban na kasar wadanda ba su karya kankara ba, ciki har da Katla a shekarar 2017 da Hamelin a shekarar 2011.

A halin yanzu, barazanar da ake yi wa rayuwar dan Adam a lokacin tashin aman wuta a kasar Iceland kadan ne. Tashoshin girgizar kasa da ke warwatse a fadin kasar sun kware wajen hasashensu. Idan manyan tsaunuka kamar Katla ko Askja sun nuna alamun rugujewa, za a hana shiga yankin kuma za a sanya ido sosai a yankin.

Godiya ga lamiri mai kyau na mazaunan farko, mafi yawan dutsen mai fitad da wuta yana da nisa daga tsakiya. Alal misali, akwai ƙalilan birane a kudancin bakin tekun Iceland, domin duwatsu kamar su Katla da Eyjafjallajökull suna arewa. Domin waɗannan kololuwar suna ƙarƙashin glacier. Fashewarta za ta haifar da ambaliyar ruwa mai yawa, wadda za ta iya share duk wani abu da ke kan hanyar zuwa teku.

Wannan shi ne abin da ya sa akasarin Kudu suka yi kama da bakar yashi. Hasali ma, fili ne da aka yi shi da ma'ajiyar glacial.

Hadarin aman wuta a Iceland

Saboda rashin tsinkayarsu, waɗannan ambaliyan dusar ƙanƙara, waɗanda aka sani da jökulhlaups, ko Mutanen Espanya a Icelandic, sun kasance ɗaya daga cikin mafi haɗari al'amuran ayyukan volcanic na Iceland. Kamar yadda aka ambata a sama, ba a koyaushe ake gano fashewar ƙaƙƙarfan ƙanƙara ba, don haka waɗannan ambaliya na iya faruwa ba tare da faɗakarwa ba.

Tabbas, ilimin kimiyya koyaushe yana ci gaba, kuma yanzu, Muddin akwai ko ɗan shakku kan cewa ƙanƙara na iya faruwa, za ku iya ƙaura da lura da wani yanki. Don haka, saboda dalilai masu ma'ana, an hana yin tuƙi a kan hanyoyin da aka haramta, ko da lokacin bazara ko kuma lokacin da ake ganin babu haɗari.

Ko da yake galibin tsaunukan tsaunuka sun yi nisa da cibiyoyi masu yawa, hadurruka na faruwa koyaushe. A cikin waɗannan lokuta, duk da haka, matakan gaggawa na Iceland sun tabbatar da yin tasiri sosai, kamar yadda aka gani a cikin 1973 fashewa a Heimaey a tsibirin Vestman.

Hemai shine tsibiri daya tilo da ke zama a cikin tsibiran Vestman, tsibiri mai aman wuta. Lokacin da dutsen mai aman wuta ya barke, mutane 5.200 ne suka zauna a wurin. Da sanyin safiyar ranar 22 ga watan Janairu ne wata baraka ta fara budewa a wajen birnin inda ta kutsa cikin tsakiyar birnin, lamarin da ya lalata hanyoyi tare da mamaye daruruwan gine-ginen lafa.

Ko da yake abin ya faru da daddare kuma a cikin matattun hunturu. an gudanar da fitar da tsibirin cikin sauri da inganci. Da mazauna yankin suka sauka lafiya, kungiyoyin ceto sun yi aiki tare da sojojin Amurka da ke cikin kasar don rage barnar da aka yi.

Ta hanyar shigar da ruwan teku akai-akai a cikin magudanar ruwa, ba wai kawai sun yi nasarar karkatar da shi daga gidaje da yawa ba, har ma sun hana shi rufe tashar jiragen ruwa, wanda ya kawo karshen tattalin arzikin tsibirin har abada.

Ina fatan cewa tare da wannan bayanin za ku iya ƙarin koyo game da tuddai masu aman wuta a Iceland da halayensu.


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