Betic tsarin

kewayen tsauni

Yau zamuyi magana akansa Betic tsarin. A yanayin kasa, wannan rukuni na tsaunuka ya faro ne daga Tekun Cádiz zuwa Valenungiyar Valencian da kuma kudu maso gabashin Tsibirin Balearic. A arewa, suna iyaka da Guadalquivir Basin da kuma iyakar kudu na masarautar Iberiya da Tsarin Iberiya, yayin da Tekun Alboran tana kan iyakar kudu. Koyaya, kamar Pyrenees, a ma'anar ilimin ƙasa, ya faɗaɗa fiye da iyakokin ƙasa, ya faɗaɗa kudu da arewa maso gabas a ƙarƙashin Tekun Alboran, kuma wani ɓangare na tsarinsa ba ya katsewa ta ƙasan Bahar Rum. Kuma wani ɓangare na balarar yana faɗuwa zuwa tsibirin na Mallorca.

A cikin wannan labarin zamu gaya muku duk abin da kuke buƙatar sani game da tsarin Betic, halayensa da mahimmancinsa.

Babban fasali

tsarin betico

Tsaunin tsaunin sakamakon sakamakon matsi ne wanda ya fara a karshen Cretaceous kimanin shekaru miliyan 100 da suka gabata kuma ya fi shafar gefen arewa da kudu na Farantin Iberian. Tsarinsa da kuma canjin rayuwa mai zuwa suna da rikitarwa saboda sakamakon ma'amala ne da manyan faranti biyu da kuma toshiyar nahiya, a yau murfin Alboran, wanda ya samar da bel na ciki na tsaunin, ya matsa zuwa yamma kuma daga karshe ya yi karo da iyakar Mesozoic. da kuma arewa maso yammacin Afirka, suna kafa tsaunin tsaunin Betica-Rifeña.

Ofaya daga cikin tabbatattun hujjoji a matakin ɗabi'a shine cewa babu wani irin tushe da aka gano a ƙarƙashin tsaunin, kamar yadda lamarin yake tare da wasu tsarukan tsaunukan tsauni mai tsayi. Kodayake ana iya lura da wasu daga cikin ɓawon burodin, amma bai wuce kilomita 40 ba a kowane yanayi. Wani haƙiƙanin gaskiyar a matakin kwalliya shine saurin siririn da za'a iya lura dashi a yankin gefen tekun. inda kaurin ɓawon burodin ya kai kimanin kilomita 22. Hakanan yankin, yana ci gaba zuwa cikin Tekun Alboran inda ya riga ya kai mafi karancinsa, kasancewar yana da kaurin kilomita 15.

Tsarin tsarin Betic

labarin kasa da Spain

Idan aka ba da waɗannan halaye na yanki na yanki da kuma amfani da wasu ka'idoji da tsarin tsari, hakan ya haifar da rarrabe tsarin Betic kamar yadda yake a cikin Rif manyan yankuna biyu da yara daban-daban kuma an raba su ta hanyar saduwa da tectonic. Bugu da ƙari, waɗannan yankuna biyu suna da asalin tarihin paleogeographic daban-daban. Bari mu ga menene waɗannan yankuna biyu ko yankuna:

  • Kudancin Iberian Domain ko Yankunan waje: Wadannan yankuna sun banbanta a dukkanin tsaunukan tsaunuka kuma duwatsun Mesozoic da Cenozoic ne suka kirkiresu suna saran juna kuma suna ninkewa ba tare da samun wani nau'I na haduwa da juna wanda yayi daidai da abubuwan da ke cikin tekun Tethys.
  • Alboran Domain ko Yankunan Ciki: wadannan yankuna an hada su. Ofulla mantles na zaftarewar ƙasa tare da kayan da ke da ƙarancin wayewa. Asalin yana da alaƙa da ƙaura na microplate na Alboran wanda ke gaba gabas.

Baya ga waɗannan manyan yankuna, zamu iya rarrabe tsarin Betic wasu yankuna kamar waɗannan masu zuwa:

  • Furrow na Flyschs na Campo de Gibraltar: babu wani yanki da aka danganta da shi tunda irin kwatarniyar da take a kanta kusan ba a san ta ba, ya zama gama-gari a cikin dukkanin tsaunukan tsaunuka kuma yana nan a garesu biyu na Ruwa na Gibraltar.
  • Matsanancin Matsakaicin Manyan Makarantu: waɗannan matsalolin suna haɗuwa da neogene da ƙwararrun quaternary. Yawancin waɗannan kwalliyar an samar dasu ne ta hanyar yashewar kayan agaji a yankin da ke kewaye. Ya bambanta akasari a cikin bankunan da ke gefen teku 3030 30 zuwa tsaunin tsauni -Bayanin Guadalquivir- da sauran yankuna na ciki -Rashin bakin ciki na Granada, Guadix-Baza, Almería-Sorbas, Vera-Cuevas de Almanzora da Murcia galibi.
  • Neogene-Quaternary volcanism: Ana wakilta a yankin Cabo de Gata da Murcia. Wannan dutsen mai fitad da wuta kuma bai dace da bayyananniyar fitowar dutse ba da ke da alaƙa da fasahar kwanan nan saboda sauyawar farantan jirgi da yawa.

Yankunan tsarin Betic

tsarin tsarin betico

Zamu bincika yankuna na tsarin Betic da halayensu. Muna farawa tare da yankin waje.

Yankin waje

Su ne Mesozoic da Cenozoic dutsen da ke cike da ruwa, galibi daga asalin ruwa, waɗanda aka kafa a cikin tekun Tethys da ke gefen yankin kudancin Iberia, kuma aka ajiye su a cikin tsaunukan tsauni. Sun mamaye babban tsawan tsauni kuma suna wakiltar tazarar lokaci daga Triassic shekaru miliyan 250 da suka gabata zuwa Miocene.

Suna gabatar da wani tsari wanda yake dauke da wani bangare na daban tsakanin ginshiki (Paleozoic varisco) da dutsen da ya lalace (folds, faults and pushing mantle). Ementakin kasan Paleozoic bai fito ba kuma ya kasance a zurfin kilomita 5-8, wanda aka ƙirƙira ta da duwatsu kama da Iberian Massif. Daga asalin wurin da aka sake kerawa, wani kwandon asali tare da tsawo kwance sau biyu mafi girma akan na yanzu.

Gyara da aka yi na shekaru daban-daban ana kiyaye shi A lokacin zamanin Jurassic, rashin daidaiton tsarin ya faru wanda ya haifar da rarrabuwa ta Tethys Basin zuwa yankuna na bambancin ilimin halittar jiki. Turawa ya fara a cikin Cretaceous kuma ya ci gaba a cikin Paleogene. Mataki na ƙarshe kuma babban ɓarna ya faru a cikin Miocene, wanda ya haifar da yalwar tsaunuka.

Yankin ciki

Tana a ƙarshen ƙarshen ƙarshen tsaunin Betica, ya faɗi daga Estepona (Malaga) a yamma zuwa Cape Santa Pola tsakanin Murcia da Alicante a gabas.

Yankin paleogeographic na ciki ya samo asali ne daga gabas kuma ya kasance ɓangaren microplate na Alboran ko Mesomediterranean. Tare da rufe tsohuwar kogin Tethys, wannan makirfon da ya rabu daga arewa maso gabashin Afirka ya yi ƙaura a gefe saboda ƙungiyoyin canji. Duwatsun Paleozoic sun bayyana a cikin yankin wannan microplate, wanda da farko aka nade shi a lokacin Varisca orogen, kuma ya lalace kuma aka sake kunna shi yayin Alpine Orogeny.

Babu kusan duwatsu na Mesozoic a cikin yankin na ciki, galibi daidai yake da abubuwan da aka ajiye a kusa da microplate ko yayin ƙaurarsu da matakan saukar da su. Triassic ya bambanta da sauran tsarin Betic, tunda asalinsa an yi shi ne da daskararren dutse da sauran dolomite. Duwatsu na Jurassic da Cretaceous sune duwatsun carbonate. Gabaɗaya, ban da wasu rikice-rikicen Eocene a cikin rigar, ɓoyayyun Paleogene sun ɓace.

Ina fatan cewa tare da wannan bayanin zaku iya ƙarin koyo game da tsarin Betic da halayensa.


Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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