Tashar Sararin Samaniya ta Duniya

'yan saman jannati

La Tashar Sararin Samaniya ta Duniyal (ISS) cibiyar bincike ce da dakin gwaje-gwajen fassarar sararin samaniya wanda ƙungiyoyin ƙasashen duniya da yawa ke haɗin gwiwa da aiki. Daraktocin hukumomin sararin samaniya ne na Amurka, Rasha, Turai, Jafananci da Kanada, amma yana haɗa ma'aikata na ƙasashe daban-daban da ƙwarewa don sarrafawa da sarrafa kayan aikin da aka bayar.

A cikin wannan labarin, za mu gaya muku duk abin da kuke buƙatar sani game da tashar sararin samaniya ta duniya da muhimmancinta.

Tashar Sararin Samaniya ta Duniya

tashar tauraron dan adam

Waɗannan ma'aikatan suna gudanar da hadaddun ayyuka na aiki wuraren gine-gine, wuraren sarrafawa da tallafin ƙaddamarwa, sarrafa motocin harbawa da yawa, gudanar da bincike, da daidaita fasaha da wuraren sadarwa.

An fara taron tashar sararin samaniyar sararin samaniya tare da ƙaddamar da tsarin sarrafa Zarya na Rasha a ranar 20 ga Nuwamba, 1998, wanda ke da alaƙa da cibiyar haɗin kai da Amurka ta gina bayan wata ɗaya, amma ana ci gaba da daidaitawa da faɗaɗa yadda ake buƙata. A tsakiyar shekara ta 2000, an ƙara wani samfurin Zvezda na Rasha, kuma a watan Nuwamba na wannan shekarar, rukunin farko ya isa, wanda ya ƙunshi injiniyan sararin samaniya na Amurka William Shepard da injiniyan injiniya na Rasha Sergey Krikalev da Kanar Yurigi Cenko. Rundunar Sojan Sama ta Rasha. Tun daga wannan lokacin, tashar sararin samaniya ta kasance cikin aiki.

Wannan ita ce tashar sararin samaniya mafi girma da aka taɓa ginawa kuma ana ci gaba da haɗa shi a cikin kewayawa. Lokacin da wannan fadada ya ƙare, zai zama abu na uku mafi haske a sararin sama bayan Rana da Wata.

Tun shekara ta 2000, 'Yan sama jannatin da suka isa tashar sararin samaniyar ta kasa da kasa sun rika juyawa kusan kowane wata shida. Sun isa wani jirgin sama na sararin samaniya daga Amurka da Rasha, tare da kayayyakin tsira. Soyuz da Ci gaba suna cikin jiragen ruwa na Rasha da aka fi amfani da su don waɗannan dalilai.

Abubuwan Tashar Sararin Samaniya ta Duniya

tashar sararin samaniya ta duniya

Abubuwan tashar sararin samaniya ba su da sauƙin ƙira. Ana yin amfani da na'urorin hasken rana kuma suna sanyaya ta hanyar da'irar da ke watsar da zafi daga na'urori, wuraren da ma'aikatan ke rayuwa da aiki. A cikin rana, zafin jiki ya kai 200ºC, yayin da dare ya faɗi zuwa -200ºC. Don wannan, dole ne a sarrafa zafin jiki da kyau.

Ana amfani da tarkace don tallafawa fale-falen hasken rana da magudanar zafi, kuma ana haɗa nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan tulu ko yanki da "nodes." Wasu daga cikin manyan kayayyaki sune Zarya, Unity, Zvezda da Solar Array.

Hukumomin sararin samaniya da dama sun kera na'urar robobi don yin motsi da motsa ƙananan kaya, da kuma dubawa, girka, da maye gurbin na'urorin hasken rana. Mafi shahara shine tashar telemanipulator ta sararin samaniya wanda ƙungiyar Kanada ta haɓaka, wanda ya yi fice ga ma'auninsa na tsawon mita 17. Yana da mahaɗin mahaɗa guda 7 kuma yana iya ɗaukar kaya fiye da yadda aka saba kamar hannun mutum (kafaɗa, gwiwar hannu, wuyan hannu da yatsu).

Karfe da ake amfani da su a cikin tsarin tashar sararin samaniya suna da juriya ga lalata, zafi da hasken rana, don haka ba su da sabon abu kuma ba sa fitar da iskar gas mai guba lokacin da suke hulɗa da abubuwan sararin samaniya.

Na waje na tashar sararin samaniya yana da kariya ta musamman daga ƙananan karo na abubuwan sararin samaniya, irin su micrometeorites da tarkace. Micrometeorites ƙananan duwatsu ne, yawanci ƙasa da gram ɗaya, waɗanda suke da alama marasa lahani. Koyaya, saboda saurin su, suna iya lalata tsarin sosai ba tare da wannan kariyar ba. Hakanan, tagogin suna da kariyar kariyar girgiza saboda an yi su da yadudduka 4 na gilashin kauri 3 cm.

Lokacin da aka kammala, ISS zai sami jimillar nauyin kilogiram 420.000 da tsayin mita 74.

Ina yake?

rayuwa a tashar sararin samaniya ta duniya

Cibiyar binciken tana da nisan kilomita 370-460 a saman saman (kimanin tazarar da ke tsakanin Washington DC da New York) kuma yana tafiya cikin sauri mai ban mamaki na 27.600 km/h. Wannan yana nufin cewa tashar sararin samaniya tana kewaya duniya kowane minti 90-92, don haka ma'aikatan suna fuskantar fitowar rana da faɗuwar rana sau 16 a kowace rana.

Tashar sararin samaniyar tana kewaya duniya ne da karkata zuwa digiri 51,6., yana ba da damar rufe kusan kashi 90 na wuraren da jama'a ke da shi. Domin tsayinsa ba ya da yawa, ana iya ganinsa daga ƙasa da ido a lokacin. A gidan yanar gizon http://m.esa.int kuna iya bin hanyarsa a ainihin lokacin don ganin ko yana kusa da yankinmu. Kowane kwana 3 yana tafiya ta wuri guda.

rayuwar tashar

Tabbatar da ma'aikatan jirgin daga farko zuwa ƙarshe ba aiki mai sauƙi ba ne saboda akwai haɗari da yawa daga balaguron sararin samaniya zuwa yanayin kiwon lafiya bayan shafe lokaci a sararin samaniya. Koyaya, sauye-sauye na iya taimaka wa 'yan sama jannati su guje wa babban haɗari.

Misali, rashin nauyi yana shafar tsokar mutum, kasusuwa da tsarin jini. dalilin da yasa ma'aikatan jirgin zasu motsa jiki na awa 2 a rana. Ayyukan motsa jiki sun haɗa da motsin ƙafafu irin na keke, motsin hannu kamar danna benci, da kuma matattu, squats da ƙari. Kayan aikin da aka yi amfani da su sun dace da yanayin sararin samaniya, saboda dole ne a tuna cewa nauyin da ke cikin sararin samaniya ya bambanta da nauyi a duniya.

Yana ɗaukar ƴan kwanaki na daidaitawa don samun kyakkyawan barcin dare. Wannan yana da mahimmanci don membobin jirgin su sami kulawar da ta dace don aiki da yanke shawara. 'Yan sama jannati sukan yi barci tsakanin sa'o'i shida zuwa shida da rabi a matsakaici, kuma za a hada su da wani abu da ba ya tashi.

'Yan sama jannati suna goge hakora, su wanke gashinsu sannan su shiga bandaki kamar kowa, amma ba sauki kamar na gida. Tsaftar hakori yana farawa ne da gogewa akai-akai, amma tunda babu nutsewa, ragowar ba za a iya tofawa ba, don haka wasu sun zaɓi su haɗiye shi ko kuma su watsar da shi a kan tawul. Ana canza tawul ɗin koyaushe kuma ana yin su da sirara amma abin sha.

Shamfu da suke amfani da su ba sa bukatar kurkure, kuma ana tsaftace ruwan da suke amfani da shi da tawul saboda rashin nauyi yakan sa ruwa ya manne da fata ta hanyar kumfa maimakon fadowa kasa. Don biyan buƙatunsu na physiological, suna amfani da mazurari na musamman da aka haɗa da fan ɗin tsotsa.

Abincin da suke bi shi ne na musamman, ba sa jin daɗinsa kamar yadda ake yi a duniya, domin a cikin haka ne ƙorafin ya zama ƙarami, kuma ana tattara shi ta wata hanyar.

Ba duka ba ne aiki a tashar sararin samaniya. Mutane kalilan ne suka san cewa 'yan sama jannati suma suna da wasu ayyuka don gujewa gajiya da damuwa. Watakila kallon tagar da kallon duniya ya wadatar, kamar yadda mutane kalilan suke yi, amma watanni 6 yana da tsayi. Suna iya kallon fina-finai, sauraron kiɗa, karantawa, buga katunan da sadarwa tare da ƙaunatattuna. Kula da hankali da ake buƙata don yin aiki mai tsawo a tashar sararin samaniya wani abu ne mai yuwuwa na 'yan sama jannati.

Ina fatan da wannan bayanin zaku iya ƙarin koyo game da tashar sararin samaniya ta ƙasa da ƙasa da halayenta.


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