Tarihin Heisenberg

karatu a kan ka'idar rashin tabbas

A yau zamuyi magana ne akan daya daga cikin masana kimiyya wadanda suka yiwa alama alama a da da kuma a duniyar kimiyyar lissafi. Ya game Werner Karl Heisenberg. Ya kasance mai tunani da ilimin lissafi na asalin Jamusanci wanda ya haɓaka wasu ayyuka da mahimmanci a cikin duniyar kimiyyar lissafi. An fi sanin su da rashin tabbas ko ƙa'idar yanke hukunci wanda ya kawo ci gaba da yawa ga ilimin kimiyyar lissafi.

A cikin wannan labarin za mu gaya muku duk abin da kuke buƙatar sani game da tarihin Heisenberg da abubuwan da yake so.

Tarihin Heisenberg

Heisenberg

Wannan masanin kimiyyar an haifeshi ne a Würzburg ranar 5 ga Disamba, 1901. Tunda yake karami ya shiga harkar ilimi tunda mahaifinsa farfesa ne na tarihi. Samun malami a cikin iyali ya sanya Heisenberg ya zama mai sha'awar duniyar kimiyya. Ya yi karatu a Jami'ar Munich kuma ya zama likita a 1923. Horonsa ya kasance tare da manyan mutane daga duniyar kimiyyar lissafi kamar Niels Bohr.

Tare da wannan masanin kimiyyar don yin aiki a matsayin mataimakiya ta hanyar tallafi daga Gidauniyar Rockefeller. Ya riga ya kasance a cikin 1927 cewa daga ƙarshe ya fara aiki a matsayin farfesa a Jami'ar Leipzig. Anan a wannan jami'ar ya fara koyar da kujerar ilimin kimiyyar lissafi. Da yake malami ne a jami'ar, ya kuma kara karatu da bincike domin bayar da wasu gudummawa ga duniyar kimiyya.

Na san Albert Einstein da kaina lokacin da yayi aiki a Copenhagen Institute for Theoretical Physics. A wannan lokacin ya kasance mai ba da gudummawa a cikin bincikensa kuma ya kirkiro makanikai. Bayan bincike daban-daban, wannan injiniyan matrix ya jagoranci shi zuwa ƙirƙirar ƙwararrun kanikanci.

Shekaru daga baya, a cikin 1935 ya so shiga Jami'ar Munich don maye gurbin Sommerfield. Wannan mutumin yana ritaya a lokacin, amma 'yan Nazi sun hana nadin nasa. Kuma sun nuna cewa Heisenberg yayi aiki tare da bayanan da suka zo masu binciken yahudawa kamar Einstein da Niels Bohr. Koyaya, shekaru da yawa daga baya ya karɓi shawarar Nazi don jagorantar gina bam ɗin atom wanda yake shugabanta a matsayin darekta a cibiyar Kaiser Wilhem. Wataƙila attemptsan toan yunƙuri don ƙirƙirar mahaɗin makaman nukiliya wanda zai iya haifar da fashewa da sauri, amma iliminsa bai ci gaba ba don haka. Saboda haka, ba zai iya cim ma hakan ba.

Heisenberg ka'idar rashin tabbas

malamin kimiyyar lissafi

An san wannan mutumin da wannan ƙa'idar rashin tabbas wanda ya kasance sakamakon bincike da yawa. Duk lokacin da kuke aiki a matsayin mai bincike, yawancin bincikenku na iya haifar da kera makaman nukiliya, duk da cewa bai yi hakan ba saboda dalilai na da'a. Mafi mahimmancin binciken sa shine ƙirƙirar ƙa'idar rashin tabbas. Wannan ka'idar sauran masana kimiyyar lissafi sunyi amfani da ita har zuwa yau.

Ka'idar rashin tabbas ta Heisenberg tana nuna cewa ba zai yuwu a san daidai lokacin da matsayin kwayar zarra ba. Ta hanyar kafa waɗannan bayanan, ya haifar da wasu hanyoyin da suka danganci girma, lokaci da kuzari. Bugu da ƙari kuma, ya sami damar sake fasalin wasu bayanan da suka shafi ka'idar gargajiya wadanda suka dogara da tabbacin ilimin kimiyyar lissafi. La'akari da cewa kwayoyin halitta wadanda suke hade da tsarin suna cikin ci gaba, ba zai yuwu a tantance ainihin matsayinsu ba.

A gefe guda, Heisenberg, dangane da kimiyyar lissafi, zai iya bayyana yanayin yanayin kwayar halittar hydrogen da kwayar helium. Albarkacin wadannan karatuttukan ya sami lambar yabo ta Nobel a fannin kimiyyar lissafi a shekarar 1932. Aikin nasa ya kasance babbar gudummawa ga 'yan sama jannati tunda ya yi hasashen kasancewar hydrogen a cikin jihohi biyu. Ofayansu shine orthohydrogen ɗayan kuwa parahydrogen. Dukansu suna da alaƙa da jagorancin motsi wanda ƙirar atomatik ke ɗauka.

Aikin Epsilon

Bayan yakin ya kare, an daure Heisenberg tare da wasu masana kimiyya na kasar Jamus kan gonar da ake kira Farm Hall a Ingila. Babban burin daukar ma'aikata shine gano yadda cigaban ayyukan kera makaman atom. Bayan fashewar bam din Hiroshima, Heisenberg ya gabatar da lacca ga sauran fursunoni don ya yi bayanin abin ainihin adadin uranium da ake buƙata don yin irin wannan bam ɗin.

Tunda sun sanya tarin microphone a ɓoye a cikin gidan, an tabbatar da cewa Heisenberg ya san adadin uranium ɗin da yake buƙata don kera makamin nukiliya amma cewa ba ya son yin hakan saboda dalilai na ɗabi'a.

Bayyana ƙa'idar rashin tabbas

Werner Heisenberg

Ofirƙirar ƙa'idar rashin tabbas tana nuna cewa mafi girman daidaiton da muka san matsayin kwayar zarra ko ƙaramin daidaito zamu san menene saurinsa kuma akasin haka. Wannan sakamakon jimla yana rikicewa sau da yawa ta sakamakon mai lura. Ana iya amfani da wannan tasirin ga tsarin jiki da yawa amma bazai yuwu a kiyaye su ba tare da canza su ba. Misalin wannan shi ne cewa Ba za ku iya auna matsa lamba a cikin taya ba tare da barin iska ta tsere ba. Ba za mu taɓa sanin ainihin matsewar taya ba kafin saka bututun mai tsabta.

Ka'idar rashin tabbas ta Heisenberg ta bayyana karara cewa ba ta da alaƙa da tsarin lura. Ya yi iƙirarin cewa ƙaddara babbar asara ce ga dukkanin tsarin jimla ko ana kiyaye su ko a'a. Kuma sakamakon sakamako ne wanda yake kasancewa tsakanin kalaman da kwayar. Idan har dole ne a ce wannan ƙa'idar rashin tabbas na ɗaya daga cikin ƙa'idodin dabarun da ba a fassara su cikin duk tarihin tun da ana tsammanin tasirin falsafa ne. An yi amfani dashi azaman gwaji na 'yancin zabi kuma a matsayin gwajin damar rabo. An yi amfani dashi don telepathy ko dalilai na parapsychology.

Labarin da a cikin sa ya sanar da hanyar falsafar da ba za ta iya yanke hukunci ba tun farkon ta a 1927, ya faɗi haka:

"A cikin tsari mai karfi na dokar haddasawa" Idan mun san daidai yanzu, za mu iya hango abin da zai faru a nan gaba, "ba ƙarshen ba ne, amma maƙasudin maƙaryaci ne. Ba za mu iya sani ba, saboda dalilai na ƙa'ida, yanzu a cikin cikakkun bayanai.

A ƙarshe, Heisenberg ya mutu a watan Fabrairun 1976.

Ina fatan cewa tare da wannan bayanin zaku iya ƙarin koyo game da wannan Heisenberg da fa'idodin sa.


Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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