Tambora dutsen mai fitad da wuta

dutsen tambora da tsauninsa

Ofaya daga cikin dutsen da aka san shi da irin nau'ikan stratovolcano wanda ya shahara a Indonesia don babban aikin da yake yi na aman wuta shi ne Ganga. Ya kasance ɗayan tsaunukan wuta tare da mafi girman aikin da aka rubuta a duniya har zuwa wannan lokacin. Wannan shine dalilin da yasa ake ɗaukarsa ɗayan fitattun dutsen aman wuta da ke akwai. Don ƙarin koyo game da wannan dutsen mai fitad da wuta, za mu yi bitar manyan halayensa, yadda ya samo asali da asalinsa, fashewarsa da tasirin sauyin yanayi.

Idan kana son karin bayani game da dutsen mai suna Tambora, to wannan sakon naka ne.

Babban fasali

tambora dutsen mai fitad da wuta

Wannan dutsen mai fitad da wuta na ƙungiyar stratovolcanoes ne. Yana nufin cewa an haɗa shi da tsari mai ƙarfi wanda ya ƙunshi manyan adadin ma'adanai masu ƙarfi sosai tare da fashewar abubuwa waɗanda aka sanya su a matsayin masu fashewa. Wadannan fashewar suna faruwa ne lokaci-lokaci, don haka ana iya ɗaukar sa kamar dutsen da ke aiki koyaushe. Pieceaya daga cikin bayanan da zasu kawo babban canji wajen tantance ginin ku shine girman ku. Kodayake wannan tsayin ne kawai mita 2.850 sama da matakin teku, wani abu ne mai girma da ya zama stratovolcano.

Dole ne mu sani cewa tsaunin dutsen mai fitad da wuta iri-iri ne wanda ke faruwa saboda dalilai daban-daban. Babban dalili kuma mafi mahimmanci shine cewa ɗakin magma yana nutsuwa ko sauyawa lokacin da dutsen mai fitad da wuta ya fi yadda tushe zai iya tallafawa. Wannan ya sanya wannan rukunin dutsen mai fitad da wuta yake da babban rami kuma zaka iya ganin wani irin yanayi idan ka duba daga sama.

Labarin ya tsawaita sananne ne cewa dutsen mai suna Tambora ya kai tsayi na mita 4300 sama da matakin teku. Wannan ya sa aka ɗauke shi ɗayan mafi girman kololuwa a duk ƙasar Indonesiya ta ƙarni na XNUMX. Koyaya, wannan duk ya canza lokacin da aka cika ɗakin magma. Kuma shine don iya bayanin wannan dole ne mu koma ga samuwar dutsen mai fitad da wuta.

Samuwar dutsen Tambora

taron dutsen mai fitad da wuta

Wannan dutsen mai fitad da wuta ya zama sananne ga irin nau'in fashewar dutse kamar yadda yake a cikin yankin subduction. Yankin yanki yanki shine ɗayan farantin ɗaya ke nitsewa ƙarƙashin wani. Mun san cewa dutsen mai fitad da wuta yana kusa kusan kilomita 340 daga Java Trench da kuma kusan kilomita 190 sama da yankin yankin ƙaramar tectonic subduction wanda ke ƙasa da Tsibirin Sumbawa.

Motsawar farantin shine wanda ya haifar da matsin lamba mai girma don samarwa a cikin magma a cikin duniya. Samun wannan matsin lambar, magma ta nemi hanyar fita. Wannan shine yadda yawancin dutsen tsaunuka suka ƙare da zama. An kiyasta hakan Tarihin dutsen dutsen Tambora ya samo asali ne kimanin shekaru 57.000 da suka gabata kuma hakan ya fara samuwa ne daga rarar kwararar ruwa da ta taurare. Irin wannan samuwar na faruwa ne galibi a cikin tsaunuka masu kama da tsauni, wanda aka fi sani da mahaɗa dutsen mai fitad da wuta.

Kimanin shekaru 43.000 da suka wuce wani babban caldera ya kafa wanda ya kai tsayi fiye da mita 4.000. Duk wannan ya faru a lokacin marigayi Pleistocene zamanin kuma an cika shi da kwararar ruwa. Daga baya, tuni a farkon Holocene, akwai abubuwa masu fashewa da yawa wadanda suke ta gyaran halittar dutsen. Mafi mahimmancin sanannen fashewar wannan dutsen mai aman wuta ya faru ne a 1815. Ana gudanar da zawarcin rediyo wanda ya ba shi damar shiga cikin kewayon mahimman abubuwa a cikin yanayin tarihin gaba ɗaya.

Fuskokin aman dutsen Tambora

Akwai wani rikodin fashewa 7 na dutsen, mafi mahimmanci shine na shekarar 1815. Tarihin fashewar dutsen Tambora Ya kasance aƙalla shekaru 50.000. 7 an tabbatar da fashewa, mafi tsufa shine a cikin 3.900 BC. Fiye da lessasa an san cewa tsakanin fashewa ɗaya da wani akwai kusan bambanci na shekaru 5.000. A kowane fashewa akwai bambance-bambance tsakanin matakan yadin lava da ke faruwa da kuma tsananin su.

Sauran sanannun fashewar fashewar sun faru ne a shekara ta 3000 BC, a shekara ta 1812, a 1819, kodayake mafi munin ya faru ne a 1815. Bayan dogon lokaci na rashin aiki da dutsen mai fitad da wuta, mazaunan ƙasashen da ke kewaye da dutsen na Tambora sun yi mamakin maye gurbin girgizar ƙasa daban-daban. Hakanan sun yi mamakin ganin yadda hayakin tururi da toka daga hayaƙin wannan stratovolcano. Kodayake ya ɓarke, waɗannan 'yan ƙasa ba su damu da yawa ba saboda ba ta da hatsarin fashewa.

Ya riga ya kasance Afrilu 5, 1815, lokacin da mafi munin ya faru. A wannan ranar dutsen mai fitad da wuta ya barke da tsananin tashin hankali tare da fitar da kwararar iska. An dauke shi azaman nau'in fashewar abubuwa masu fashewa kuma ana iya jinsa a tazarar kilomita 1.400. Tuni washegari, toka mai aman wuta ta faɗo a gabashin Java kuma ta haifar da hayaniya sakamakon aikin fashewar. Bayan kwana biyar, ɗayan mummunan fashewa a tarihi ya faru. Yana daya daga cikin fitattun abubuwa masu fashewa a duk tarihi, suna harbi mai nisan kilomita cubic 150 da toka wanda ya kai nisan kilomita 1.300 zuwa arewa maso yamma.

Wannan shi ne fashewa da lalacewar sa kusan mutane 60.000 suka rasa rayukansu. An san wannan fashewar a matsayin daya daga cikin mafi munin tunda ya fi na dutsen dutsen mai suna Krakatoa wanda ya faru a shekarar 1883. A cikin wannan nau'in fashewar, kayan da aka fitar sun ninka har sau 100 fiye da na wannan fashewar. Koyaya, mutane da yawa sun rasa rayukansu kuma kogunan ruwa gaba ɗaya sun binne sanduna mafi kusa da duk ƙasar noma. Lamarin da ya haifar da samuwar babban caldera wanda ya ke har zuwa yau kuma ya sa dutsen mai fitad da wuta ya rasa tsayi da yawa.

Kamar yadda kuke gani, wannan dutsen mai fitad da wuta yana daya daga cikin mahimmancin gaske a duniya ganin yadda ta'addancin da ya faru a shekarar 1815. Ina fatan cewa da wannan bayanin zaku iya samun karin bayani game da dutsen Tambora da mummunar fashewar sa.


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