Stromatolites

muhimmancin stromatolites

A duniyarmu akwai sifofi da sifofi daban -daban waɗanda zasu iya ba mu mamaki ƙwarai. Daya daga cikinsu shine stromatolites. An shimfida su ko tsattsarkar tsarin duwatsu waɗanda aka samu ta hanyar gurɓataccen ruwa da / ko ma'adanai waɗanda aka ajiye akan lokaci saboda kasancewar al'ummomin algae masu kore da shuɗi. Ana iya samun waɗannan stromatolites a cikin sabo da ruwan gishiri kuma a cikin adibas na ajiya.

A cikin wannan labarin za mu gaya muku menene halayen, inda aka same su kuma menene mahimmancin stromatolites.

Menene stromatolites

stromatolites

Stromatolites sune sifofi Tsirrai masu tsattsauran ra'ayi ko gurɓatattun duwatsun da aka samu ta hanyar gurɓataccen ruwa da / ko ma'adanai waɗanda al'ummomin algae masu launin shuɗi-kore suka ajiye kuma ana iya samun su a cikin jikin ruwan sabo ko ruwan gishiri da kumburin huci a wurare daban -daban a doron ƙasa. Algae mai launin shuɗi, wanda aka fi sani da cyanobacteria, yana wakiltar rukunin prokaryotes na ruwa - na masarautar ƙwayoyin cuta - waɗanda zasu iya samun kuzari daga hasken rana, wato suna iya aiwatar da photosynthesis.

Cyanobacteria na ɗaya daga cikin mafi mahimmanci da wadatattun ƙungiyoyin halittar prokaryotic, kamar kowane nau'in ƙwayoyin cuta, su ne microscopic, ƙwayoyin sel guda ɗaya, kodayake sun saba girma zuwa mazauna manyan da za a iya gani da ido tsirara. Waɗannan ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta na photosynthetic na iya zama rayayyun halittu na farko a doron ƙasa, saboda tsoffin burbushin da aka samo sun dawo fiye da shekaru biliyan 3.000 kuma ana samun cyanobacteria a cikin stromatolites.

Stromatolites sune sifofin da aka samar ta hanyar ayyukan rayuwa na al'ummomin microbial, wanda cyanobacteria ke mamayewa, wanda zai iya hanzarta da sanya adadi mai yawa na ma'adanai da ma'adanai, galibi dutse. Waɗannan tsarukan dutsen ana ɗaukar su tsoffin tsirran halittu a duniyarmu, kuma Shark Bay a Yammacin Ostiraliya gida ne ga tsofaffin samfura.

Muhimmancin stromatolites ya ta'allaka ne a cikin ƙwayoyin su na microbial, saboda cyanobacteria da ke ƙunshe suna samar da iskar oxygen mai yawa da dabbobi da sauran halittu ke buƙata a cikin biosphere.

Babban fasali

duwatsu a cikin tabkuna

Bari mu ga menene manyan halayen da stromatolites suke da wanda zasu iya ficewa:

  • Sassan duwatsu ne waɗanda ƙananan halittu suka kirkira, galibi cyanobacteria, ana kiranta da tsarin gurɓataccen ƙwayar cuta saboda an samo su daga ayyukan rayuwa na ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta waɗanda ke haɗa su.
  • Suna iya baje kolin wasu kwayoyin halitta, kamar algae guda ɗaya, fungi, kwari, ɓawon burodi, da sauransu, gwargwadon inda aka same su.
  • Abun haɓakar sa ya samo asali ne ta cakuda limestone da dolomite (suna da wadatar sinadarin carbonate na alli).
  • Suna samar da hanyar hasken rana kamar shuke -shuke, don haka suna "girma" a tsaye kuma an shirya su cikin zanen gado ko yadudduka, Layer da Layer.
  • Layer na waje shine ƙarami kuma mafi tsayi shine tushe.
  • Suna girma ko zama sannu a hankali, don haka kusan koyaushe suna da tsari wanda ya kai ɗaruruwan ko dubban shekaru.
  • Suna rayuwa a cikin ruwa mai zurfi ko mara zurfi, suna girma a ƙasa, kuma suna da matuƙar kula da canjin yanayi, canje -canje a matakin teku, da gurɓatawa.
  • Suna iya kaiwa tsayin kusan santimita 50 daga ƙasa, kuma suna da kusurwa huɗu, siffa mai siffa, dome-dimbin yawa, siffa mai siffa, nodular, ko kwata-kwata.
  • Akwai tsofaffin burbushin tsoffi.

Muhimmancin stromatolites

duwatsu masu rai

Stromatolites galibi suna wanzu a cikin yanayin ruwa na teku ko cikin ruwa mai daɗi, kuma galibi suna samuwa a cikin ruwa mara zurfi. Ƙarshen yamma na Ostiraliya yana ɗaya daga cikin shahararrun wuraren da stromatolites "na zamani" ke kasancewa a cikin manyan tafkunan gishiri.

Stromatolites sun kasance kuma suna ci gaba da kasancewa masu mahimmanci ga rayuwa akan farfajiyar ƙasa. Tunda cyanobacteria da suke ƙunshe yana ɗaya daga cikin tsoffin halittu akan rikodin, ayyukansa na photosynthetic an yi imanin sun ba da gudummawa ga samuwar yanayin iskar oxygen wanda a halin yanzu muke rayuwa kuma a ƙarshe ya haifar da samuwar ƙwayoyin halittar iska.

Bugu da kari, kamar yadda muka riga muka ambata, waɗannan tsarukan har yanzu suna ba da gudummawar iskar oxygen zuwa yanayin mu, don haka rayuwar mu ta dogara da su. Duk da tsarin su mai sauƙi, ana ɗaukar stromatolites da mahimmanci ga fannonin ilmin halitta, ilimin ƙasa, har ma da ilimin taurari, galibi saboda ana iya samun bayanai daga binciken su. Misali, a cikin ilimin geology, stromatolites suna ba da bayanai masu mahimmanci ga ƙananan fannoni kamar stratigraphy, sedimentology, paleogeography, paleontology, da geophysics.

Koyaya, gabaɗaya, mahimmancin sa yana cikin ayyuka masu zuwa:

  • Bayyana yanayin kakannin wasu muhallin, musamman dangane da yawan gishiri da ajiye mahadi daban -daban.
  • Gano wuraren da aka sami ayyukan halittu a baya.
  • Ƙayyade shekarun wasu muhallin halittu.
  • Zana bakin tekun da ya gabata.
  • Iyakance lokacin asalin kwayoyin halittar photosynthetic (kamar algae) da samuwar al'ummomin halittu.
  • Fahimci ƙimar tarawar laka a wasu wurare.
  • Koyi yadda microfossils suke kama.

Wurare a cikin duniya inda zamu iya samun su

Kamar yadda muka ambata a baya, akwai wurare da yawa a cikin duniya inda zamu iya samun stromatolites. Koyaya, za mu haskaka wasu tsayayyun wuraren da muka san za mu iya samunsu:

  • Pampa del Tamarugal National Reserve, a Tarapacá, lardin Tamarugal, Chile.
  • Kogin Cuatrociénegas, a cikin farin hamada na Coahuila da Tafkin Alchichica, Mexico.
  • Tekun Bacalar, a yankin Yucatan, kudu da Mexico.
  • Laguna Salada, a jihar Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil.
  • Tafkin Salda, a Turkiyya.
  • Exuma Cays, gundumar Exuma, Tsibirin Bahamas.
  • Pavillion Lake, British Columbia, Kanada.
  • Blue Lake, kudu maso gabashin Australia.

Stromatolites ba tsarin gama -gari bane a cikin dukkan tsirrai na ruwa a duniyarmu, amma gabaɗaya ana rarraba su a cikin iyakantaccen yanayi inda yanayi ke fifita shigar da ma'adanai da ke haɗa su.

A Meziko, shafuka 4 ne kawai aka sani waɗanda ke bayyana stromatolites "kwanan nan":

  • Basin Cuatrociénegas: Yana cikin Kwarin Kwarin Cuatrociénegas kusa da Hamadar Coahuila a Jihar Coahuila de Zaragoza a arewacin ƙasar.
  • Tafkin Alchchica: Tekun gishiri tare da babban taro na magnesium a cikin jihar Puebla mai 'yanci, kusa da tsakiyar ƙasar.
  • Laguna de Bacalar, wanda kuma aka sani da Laguna de los Siete Colores de Bacalar: Yana cikin yankin Yucatan, mallakar jihar Quintana Roo ce.
  • Kogin Chichankanab: shi ma mallakar jihar Quintana Roo ne.

Ina fatan cewa tare da wannan bayanin zaku iya ƙarin koyo game da stromatolites da halayen su.


Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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