San Andrés Laifi

girgizar kasa ta San Andres

Tsarin yanayin ƙasa na ɓoyayyen ƙasa na duniyarmu yana da tsarin ƙasa da yawa. Daya daga cikinsu shine kasawa. Mafi kyawun laifin da aka sani a duniya shine Laifin San Andreas. Tana ɗaya daga cikin mafi sanannun sanannun ƙaura mafi ƙarfi da ta taɓa samu a duniya kuma shine ke yawan haifar da manyan girgizar ƙasa.

A cikin wannan labarin za mu gaya muku duk abin da kuke buƙatar sani game da laifin San Andrés, menene laifi kuma menene nau'ikan kuskuren da ke akwai.

Menene gazawa

san andres laifi

Laifin yanayin ƙasa shine fasa ko ɓarna a tsakanin duwatsu biyu a cikin ɓawon ƙasa. Yana da katsewa da aka samu ta hanyar fashe manyan duwatsu biyu saboda karfin tectonic da ya wuce juriyarsu. Wannan yana haifar da zamewar juna. Rashin gazawa na iya faruwa cikin sauri ko sannu a hankali, kuma yana iya zama 'yan milimita ko dubban kilomita.Misali, laifin San Andreas ana ganin laifin mafi haɗari a duniya.

Kafin a yi kowane gini akan ƙasa da ba a bunƙasa ba, masana ilimin ƙasa dole ne su bincika ƙasa don sanin ko ya dace da gini. Wasu aibi ana ganin su a sarari, amma da shigewar lokaci, wasu kurakuran na iya zama ba a sani ba. Kodayake ba duka aka rarrabe su da haɗari ba, motsi na wannan ƙasa "tabo" ba shi da tabbas.

Dalilin girgizar kasa

hutun ƙasa

Ƙwayoyin halitta da aka samo daga ɓawon ƙasa suna haifar da motsi na tubalan dutse ko manyan faranti na tectonic. Gefen da abun da ke cikin waɗannan faranti suna cike da ɓarna, rashin ƙarfi da rashin daidaituwa, waɗanda ke rage saurin motsi da tara kuzari.

Dole ne a saki wannan kuzarin da aka tara a wani wuri, don haka ba zato ba tsammani zai karye ya zame saboda nauyi da nauyi. A ƙarshe, tsarin faranti yana wakiltar raƙuman ruwan girgizar ƙasa waɗanda ke haifar da rawar jiki.

Duk waɗannan ayyukan ba koyaushe ake ganewa ba daga duniyar waje a cikin yanayin girgizar ƙasa mai ƙarfi, sai dai idan motsi ya yi sauri kuma toshewar ta zamewa 'yan mita kaɗan.

Nau'in kasawa

Akwai kasawa iri uku a duniya. Bari mu ga menene su:

  • Komawa: Hakanan suma kurakurai ne a tsaye, banbanci shine cewa toshewar rufin yana motsawa dangane da ɗayan toshe. Ƙarfin da ire -iren waɗannan kura -kuran ke haifarwa suna da girma, wanda ke nufin cewa an ture katangar biyu zuwa junansu, suna yin tsagewar tsagi.
  • Al'ada: Yana zamewa ta hanyar nutsewa inda ɗayan tubalan ya yi ƙasa dangane da ɗayan. Wato motsi ne a tsaye. Ya samo asali ne daga karkacewar farantin tectonic ko rabuwa. Ire -iren ire -iren waɗannan ƙananan ƙananan ne, tare da ƙaura kusan mil ɗaya, amma akwai keɓewa waɗanda ke ƙaruwa zuwa dubun kilomita.
  • Kwance ko gungurawa: Kamar yadda sunan ya nuna, motsin a kwance yake, a layi daya da alkinin laifin. Yana iya matsawa zuwa dama, da ake kira juyawa dama, ko kuma yana iya komawa zuwa hagu, wanda ake kira synesthetic.

Mafi yawan binciken da aka sani a kwance ko ɓarkewar ƙaura shine Laifin San Andrés, wanda ya haifar da girgizar ƙasa saboda motsi zuwa motsi na dama ko na dextral.

San Andrés Laifi

Farantin Tectonic

Ranar 18 ga Afrilu, 1906, duniya ta ba da cikakkiyar kulawa ga laifin San Andreas. Rikicin laifin ya haifar da girgizar ƙasa mai ƙarfi a San Francisco, Amurka, kashe mutane sama da 3.000.

Laifin San Andreas babban kakkarfa ne mai ɓarna a cikin ɓarnar Duniya, tsawonsa kusan kilomita 1.300, wanda ya taso daga ƙarshen Tekun California kuma ya bi ta yammacin California a Amurka. Motsi na tectonic da aka yi rikodin wannan kuskuren shekaru miliyan 15-20 ya ja hankalin jama'a saboda tsananin girgizar ƙasa. Bayan wannan rana a 1906, a 1989 da 1994, gazawar ta nuna a sarari cewa za ta ci gaba da aiki.

San Andrés ba laifi bane kawai. Yana wakiltar manyan faranti biyu na ɓawon duniya: farantin Pacific da farantin Arewacin Amurka. Ba kamar Amurka ba, farantin Pacific na nunin faifai a gefe. Sabili da haka, ana rarrabasu azaman zamewa ko gazawar ƙaura.

Canje -canje na laifin San Andrés

Laifin ya sami sauye -sauye da yawa a lokacin wanzuwarsa, yana yin tafiyar santimita kaɗan kacal a shekara, kuma ya ɗan tsinke a 6.4 m a cikin girgizar ƙasa ta 1906. Wasu masana kimiyya da suka tsunduma cikin bincikensu har ma sun gano motsi a tsaye.

A cikin sauran binciken na yanzu, laifin San Andreas kusa da Parkfield, California an sami girgizar ƙasa kusan digiri 6 a kowace shekara 22. Masana kimiyyar girgizar kasa sun yi hasashen zai faru sau daya a shekarar 1993, amma hakan bai faru ba sai a 2004. Idan aka yi maganar kimiyya, wannan adadi ne na kusa, don haka wannan yankin na California ya yi aiki don muhimmin bincike kan girgizar kasa da halayyar su.

Hadarin laifin San Andreas

Laifin San Andrés wani bangare ne na Zoben Wutar Tekun Pacific, wanda ya mamaye fiye da kilomita 40.000 na yankuna da girgizar ƙasa da yawa da ayyukan volcanic. Yankin kashe gobara ko zobe na wuta ya tashi daga New Zealand zuwa Kudancin Amurka, yana kan iyaka da Japan zuwa arewa, Oletian Trench, da Arewa da Tsakiyar Amurka.

Kusa da yankin kuskuren San Andreas shine California, kazalika da ƙaramin al'ummomin da yawansu ya kai miliyan 38. Masana sun yi gargadin cewa girgizar ƙasa ta haifar da motsi tectonic na faranti na ɓarna zai zama mai ɓarna. Koyaya, yakamata mutane su shirya don yiwuwar girgiza mai sauƙi da yawa. Hakanan, mafi yawan gine-ginen zamani, gadoji da hanyoyi ana gina su don tsayayya da girgizar ƙasa da kuma ɗaukar raƙuman girgizar ƙasa. Ba shi yiwuwa a yi hasashen girgizar ƙasa da gaske, amma gaskiyar ita ce San Andrés yana nan da rai.

Barazanar da ta fi damun masana ilimin ƙasa ta fito ne daga gefen kudu. Binciken ƙasa ya nuna cewa an lalata arewa a cikin 1906 kuma an lalata ɓangaren tsakiya shekaru 160 da suka gabata, amma kudu ta kiyaye kowa da kowa.

Akwai girgizar ƙasa a kudu mai nisa kusan kowace shekara 150, amma kusan shekaru 300 sun shuɗe ba tare da wani rikodin motsi ba. Sabili da haka, da zarar an sake shi zuwa waje, tarin kuzarin da ke ƙasa yana iya yin barna. Idan aka yi wata babbar girgizar ƙasa mai girman Richter fiye da digiri 7, yawan mutanen Los Angeles zai fi shafa, tare da aƙalla mutane 2,000 ke cikin haɗarin mutuwa.

Ina fatan cewa tare da wannan bayanin zaku iya ƙarin koyo game da laifin San Andrés da halayensa.


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