Rutherford

Rariya

Daga cikin malaman da suka ba da gudummawa sosai ga kimiyya a cikin centuriesarnukan da muke da su Rutherford. Cikakken sunansa shine Lord Ernest Rutherford kuma an haife shi ne a ranar 30 ga watan Agusta, 1871. Ya kasance masanin ilmin kimiyyar lissafi da ilmin kimiya na Biritaniya wanda ya ba da gudummawa sosai ga duniyar kimiyya. An haifeshi ne a garin Nelson, na kasar New Zealand. Daya daga cikin mahimman gudummawar sa ga kimiyya shine samfurin atom na Rutherford.

A cikin wannan labarin za mu gaya muku duk abin da kuke buƙatar sani game da rayuwar Rutherford da tarihin rayuwarsa.

Tarihin Rutherford

rutherford

Ya kasance dan Martha Thompson da James Rutherford. Mahaifin ɗan ƙasar Scotland manomi ne kuma makanike ne kuma mahaifiyarsa malamin Turanci ce. Shi ne na huɗu daga cikin 'yan uwa goma sha ɗaya kuma iyayensa koyaushe suna son ba yaransu ilimi mafi kyau. A makaranta malamin yayi murna sosai ta hanyar zama hazikin ɗalibi. Wannan ya ba Ernest izini Zan iya shiga kwalejin Nelson. Kwaleji ce da ke da babban mahimmin ajiya ga mutane masu fasaha. Ya sami damar haɓaka kyawawan halaye na rugby wanda ya sa shi shahara sosai a makarantarsa.

A shekarar sa ta ƙarshe ya kasance na farko a cikin dukkan fannoni kuma ya sami damar shiga kwalejin Canterbury. Daga baya a jami'a ya halarci daban kulaflikan kimiyya da tunani amma basu yi watsi da ayyukan rugby ba. Shekaru daga baya ya zurfafa karatunsa na lissafi albarkacin karatun da ya samu a Jami'ar New Zealand. Daga baya ya tashi tsaye don son sani da kuma iyawarsa don warware matsaloli da yawa na sinadarai da lissafi. Saboda haka, zai iya zama babban ɗalibi a Cambridge.

Binciken farko

ilmin sunadarai da kimiyyar lissafi

Binciken farko da Rutherford yayi ya fara nuna cewa ana iya yin maganadisu ta hanyar manyan mitoci. Kyakkyawan sakamakon karatun sa ya bashi damar cigaba da karatu da bincike daban daban tsawon shekaru. A Cambridge Cavendish dakunan gwaje-gwaje ya sami damar aiwatar da ayyukanshi a ƙarƙashin jagorancin mai binciken lantarki John John Thompson. An fara aiwatar da ayyukan daga shekarar 1895.

Kafin ya tafi yin binciken, sai ya shiga neman aure da Mary Newton. Shekaru da yawa daga baya kuma saboda aikinsa an nada shi farfesa a Jami'ar McGill a Montreal. Wannan ya kasance a Kanada. Shekaru daga baya, lokacin da ya dawo Ingila, ya shiga aikin koyarwa a Jami’ar Manchester. Anan ne ya fara koyar da darussan kimiyyar lissafi. A karshen Thompson ya sauka daga matsayin darakta na dakin binciken Cavendish a Jami'ar Cambridge kuma Rutherford ya maye gurbinsa.

Daya daga cikin fitattun maganganun wannan masanin shine:

"Idan gwajin ku yana buƙatar ƙididdiga, da ya zama dole ku yi mafi kyawun gwaji." Ernest Rutherford

Abubuwan binciken Rutherford

samfurin atomic

A cikin 1896 an riga an gano aikin rediyo kuma wannan binciken yayi babban tasiri ga wannan masanin. A saboda wannan dalili, ya fara bincike da gudanar da bincike ta hanyar wucewa lokaci da kokarin gano manyan abubuwan da ke kunshe da radiation. Ya nuna cewa kwayoyin alpha sune masu dauke da sinadarin helium kuma ya baiwa kowa mamaki a kimiya tare da kirkirar ka'idar tsarin atom. Daga nan ne samfurin atom na Rutherford ya fito. A matsayin lada, an zabe shi memba na Royal Society a 1903 kuma daga baya ya zama shugaban kasa.

An bayyana wannan samfurin atom a cikin 1911 kuma daga baya aka goge shi Niels Bohr. Bari mu ga menene manyan jagororin samfurin atom na Rutherford:

  • Barbashi wanda ke da tabbataccen caji a cikin zarra an tsara su a cikin ƙaramin ƙarami idan muka kwatanta shi da jimillar ƙarar da aka ce atom.
  • Kusan duk nauyin da kwayar zarra take a wannan ƙaramin ƙaramin da aka ambata. Wannan mahaɗin na ciki an kira shi tsakiya.
  • Electron dake da mummunan caji ana samun su suna jujjuyawar mahaifa.
  • Elektron suna juyawa cikin babban gudu alokacin da suke kusa da cibiya kuma suna yin hakan a madaidaiciyar hanya. Wadannan hanyoyin an kira su orbits. Daga baya zan an san su da suna orbitals.
  • Duk wayannan wutan lantarki wadanda aka yiwa caji mara kyau da kuma cibiya na kwayar zarra da kanta suna tare koyaushe tare da godiya ga karfi mai jan hankali na lantarki.

Duk wannan an nuna ta gwaji kuma an ba shi izini don ƙirƙirar tsari don ainihin haɓakar mahaɗan atom. Ernest ya tsara ka'idar game da tasirin rediyo na halitta wanda yake da alaƙa da canjin canjin yanayi. Idan ya kasance a matsayin mai haɗin gwiwa a cikin tashar haskakawa saboda aikinsa a fannin kimiyyar lissafi. Saboda haka, ana girmama shi a matsayin ɗaya daga cikin iyayen wannan horo.

Kyautar Nobel a Chemistry

Gudummawar da aka bayar a kimiyya sun taimaka sosai a Yaƙin Duniya na .aya. Kuma yana yiwuwa a gudanar da karatu daban-daban don gano jiragen ruwa ta hanyar amfani da igiyar ruwa. Wannan shine farkon farkon karatun, kodayake da zarar rigimar ta kare, an aiwatar da hanyar farko ta hanyar samar da sinadarai ta hanyar jefa bam din nitrogen a matsayin kwayoyin alpha. Duk manyan ayyukan Rutherford har yanzu ana neman su a yau a dakunan karatu da jami'o'in duniya. Yawancin ayyukansa suna da alaƙa da aikin rediyo da kuma jujjuyawar abubuwa masu tasirin iska.

Godiya ga ilimin da ya samu a cikin bincikensa game da wargaza abubuwa, ya sami damar samun kyautar Nobel a fannin ilmin sunadarai a shekarar 1908, kafin ya buga samfurin kwayar zarrarsa. Element 104 na tebur na lokaci-lokaci an kira shi Rutherfordium a cikin girmamawarsa. Koyaya, mun san cewa babu wani abu da zai dawwama kuma, kodayake wannan masanin ya ba da babban ci gaba ga kimiyya, ya mutu a ranar 19 ga Oktoba, 1937 a Cambridge, Ingila. An binne gawarsa a Westminster Abbey kuma a can suke hutawa tare da na Sir Isaac Newton da Lord Kelvin.

Kamar yadda kuke gani, akwai masana kimiyya da yawa waɗanda suka ba da gudummawa da gogewa da ilimi da yawa a duniyar kimiyya kuma, tare, suna sa mu san abubuwa da yawa. Ina fatan cewa tare da wannan bayanin za ku iya koyo game da tarihin rayuwa da abubuwan da Ubangiji Ernest Rutherford ya yi.


Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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