Paleozoic

tsohuwar ilimin ƙasa

A cikin lokacin ilimin ƙasa za mu iya rarrabe shekaru daban -daban, eons da lokutan da aka raba lokaci bisa ga yanayin yanayin ƙasa, yanayin yanayi da bambancin halittu. Ofaya daga cikin matakai uku da aka raba rubutun Phanerozoic shine Paleozoic. Lokaci ne na sauyawa wanda ke nuna alamar juyin halitta tsakanin tsoffin halittu zuwa mafi ƙanƙantar da halittu waɗanda ke da ikon cinye mazaunin ƙasa.

A cikin wannan labarin za mu gaya muku duk halaye, geology, yanayi, flora da fauna na Paleozoic.

Babban fasali

paleozoic

Kwayoyin halittu masu yawa sun sami sauye -sauye da yawa waɗanda ke ba su damar dacewa da yanayin ƙasa, mafi mahimmanci shine haɓaka ƙwai na mahaifa. Daga mahangar ilimin ƙasa, ilmin halitta da yanayi, babu shakka Paleozoic lokaci ne na manyan canje -canje a doron ƙasa. A tsawon lokacin da ya ɗauka, canje -canje sun faru ɗaya bayan ɗaya, wasu daga cikinsu an rubuta su da kyau, yayin da wasu ba su da yawa.

Paleozoic ya kasance kusan daga Shekaru miliyan 541 da suka gabata zuwa kusan shekaru miliyan 252. Ya shafe kimanin shekaru miliyan 290. A wannan zamanin, nau'o'in rayuwa da yawa na teku da ƙasa sun nuna babban bambanci. Ya kasance daya daga cikin lokutan da kwayoyin halittu suka zama daban -daban, suka zama na musamman, har ma suna iya barin mazaunan teku da mamaye sararin samaniya.

A ƙarshen wannan zamanin, an kafa babban ƙasa da ake kira Pangea kuma daga baya ya raba cikin nahiyar da aka sani a yau. A ko'ina cikin Paleozoic, yanayin zafin jiki ya canza sosai. Na ɗan lokaci yana zafi da ɗumi, yayin da wasu ke raguwa sosai. Da yawa don haka an sami dusar ƙanƙara da yawa. Hakazalika, a ƙarshen wannan zamanin, yanayin muhalli ya yi muni sosai har wani babban abin ƙyama ya faru, wanda ake kira ɗimbin yawa, wanda kusan kashi 95% na nau'in da ke zaune a cikin ƙasa sun ɓace.

Paleozoic Geology

Burbushin Paleozoic

Daga mahangar ilimin ƙasa, Paleozoic ya canza da yawa. Babban abin da ya faru na farko na ilimin ƙasa a cikin wannan lokacin shine rabuwa da manyan ƙasashe waɗanda aka sani da Pangea 1. An raba Pangea 1 zuwa nahiyoyi da yawa, yana ba shi kamanin tsibirin da ke kewaye da tekuna mara zurfi. Waɗannan tsibiran sune: Laurentia, Gondwana da Kudancin Amurka.

Duk da wannan rabuwa, a cikin dubban shekaru waɗannan tsibiran sun kusanci juna kuma a ƙarshe sun samar da sabon ƙasa mai ƙarfi: Panga II. Hakanan, a wannan lokacin abubuwa biyu masu matukar muhimmanci na ƙasa sun faru don sauƙaƙe duniya: Caledonian orogeny da Hercynian orogeny.

A cikin shekaru miliyan 300 da suka gabata na Paleozoic, jerin canje -canjen yanki ya faru saboda manyan filaye da suka wanzu a wancan lokacin. A farkon Paleozoic, adadi mai yawa na waɗannan ƙasashe suna kusa da mai daidaitawa. Laurentia, Baltic Sea da Siberia sun haɗu a cikin wurare masu zafi. Daga baya, Laurentia ta fara ƙaura zuwa arewa.

A kusa da lokacin Silurian, nahiyar da aka sani da Tekun Baltic ta shiga Laurentia. Nahiyar da aka kafa anan ana kiranta Laurasia. Daga ƙarshe, babban yankin da ya samo asali daga Afirka da Kudancin Amurka ya yi karo da Laurasia, ya kafa ƙasa da ake kira Pangea.

Clima

Babu rubuce -rubucen dogaro da yawa na abin da yanayin Paleozoic na farko dole ne ya kasance. Duk da haka, masana sun yi imanin cewa saboda babban tekun, dole ne yanayin ya kasance da yanayin yanayi da yanayin teku. Lower Paleozoic Era ya ƙare tare da Ice Age, zazzabi ya ragu, kuma yawancin nau'ikan sun mutu. Daga baya ya kasance lokacin tsayayyen yanayi, yanayin ya yi zafi da ɗumi, kuma akwai iskar carbon dioxide da yawa a cikin yanayin.

Yayin da tsire -tsire ke zama a cikin mazaunin ƙasa, iskar oxygen a cikin yanayi yana ƙaruwa, yayin da carbon dioxide ke raguwa. Yayin da zamani ya ci gaba, yanayin yanayi yana canzawa. A ƙarshen Permian, yanayin yanayi ya sa rayuwa ta kasance mai dorewa. Kodayake ba a san dalilan waɗannan canje -canjen ba tukuna (akwai hasashe da yawa), abin da aka sani shi ne yanayin muhalli ya canza kuma yanayin zafin ya ƙaru kaɗan, wanda ya dumama yanayi.

Paleozoic Biodiversity

ci gaban halittu

Flora

A cikin Paleozoic, tsirrai na farko ko tsirrai masu kama da tsirrai sune algae da fungi, waɗanda suka haɓaka a cikin wuraren ruwa. Daga baya, a mataki na gaba na rabe -raben lokacin, an tabbatar da hakan koren tsire -tsire na farko sun fara bayyana, saboda abun cikin chlorophyll, wanda ya fara aiwatar da tsarin photosynthesis, wanda galibi ke da alhakin iskar oxygen a cikin yanayin Duniya. Waɗannan tsirrai suna da tsufa sosai kuma ba su da kwantena masu gudana, don haka dole ne su kasance a wuraren da ke da zafi sosai.

Daga baya tsirrai na jijiyoyin jini na farko sun bayyana. Waɗannan tsirrai suna ɗauke da tasoshin jini masu gudana (xylem da phloem) waɗanda ke shan abubuwan gina jiki da kewaya ruwa ta tushensu. Bayan haka, flora ya faɗaɗa kuma ya ƙaru sosai. Ferns, shuke -shuke iri da manyan bishiyu na farko sun bayyana, kuma waɗanda ke cikin asalin halittar Archeopteryx sun ji daɗin babban suna saboda sune ainihin bishiyoyi na farko da suka fara bayyana. Mosses na farko kuma sun bayyana a cikin Paleozoic Era.

Wannan babban banbancin tsire-tsire ya kasance har zuwa ƙarshen Permian, lokacin da abin da ake kira "babban mutuwa" ya faru, lokacin da kusan dukkanin nau'in tsiron da ke zaune a cikin ƙasa sun ƙare.

fauna

Ga dabbobin daji, zamanin Paleozoic shima lokaci ne mai canzawa, saboda a cikin gundumomi shida da suka ƙunshi wannan zamanin, fauna tana haɓaka da canzawa, daga ƙananan halittu zuwa manyan dabbobi masu rarrafe, suna fara mamaye sararin ƙasa.

A farkon Paleozoic, dabbobin farko da aka lura sune waɗanda ake kira trilobites, wasu kasusuwa, mollusks, da chordates. Hakanan akwai sponges da brachiopods. Daga baya, kungiyoyin dabbobi sun zama daban -daban. Misali, cephalopods tare da bawo, bivalves (dabbobi masu harsashi biyu) da murjani sun bayyana. Hakanan, a wannan lokacin, wakilan farko na Echinoderm phylum sun bayyana.

A lokacin zamanin Silurian, kifin farko ya bayyana. Wakilan wannan ƙungiya sune kifayen jawed da kifaye marasa jaw. Hakanan, samfurori na ƙungiyar myriapods sun bayyana.

Ina fatan cewa tare da wannan bayanin zaku iya ƙarin koyo game da Paleozoic da halayensa.


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