Orogenesis

Samuwar jeri jeri

La orogenesis shine samuwar manyan duwatsu da tuddai na ƙasar ta hanyar wasu motsi na tectonic faranti. Gaskiyar cewa Duniya tana juyawa yana nufin yana aiki ne a matsayin nau'in mahaɗan masu rai kuma hakanan kuma yana fuskantar canje-canje kamar rayayyun halittu. Hanyar da yake bayyana canje-canje a cikin ƙasa da bayyanar lithosphere shine ta hanyar girgizar ƙasa. Ta hanyar motsiwar faranti masu motsi a cikin dunkulen duniya, ana kirkirar sabbin tsaunuka ta hanyar aikin da ake kira orogenesis.

Shin kuna son ƙarin sani game da orogenesis da nau'ikansa? Muna gaya muku komai.

Hanyar maganin cutar

Motsawar farantin Tectonic

Tunda Duniya bata da yanayin operandi hanzarta, bari mu ce, dole ne mu tuna cewa lokacin aiwatarwarsa ba a kan ɗan adam yake ba. la'akari da lokacin ilimin kasa zamu iya cewa orogeny tsari ne mai sauki wanda yake faruwa a kwance. Motsi ne na siraran filaye na ƙasa wanda ƙasa ke raguwa ko tsawaita, gwargwadon nau'in motsi.

A wasu lokuta, babu tsawa ko raguwa, kawai wata nakasa ce. A waɗannan yanayin, faranti masu motsi suna motsawa cikin shear kuma ba su da haɗuwa ko motsi dabam. Hanyar orogenesis kuma an yarda da ita azaman sabuntawa don tsaunukan tsaunuka da tsaunukan da suke a nahiyoyin duniya.

Kamar yadda muka sani, bayan wucewar dubban shekaru, tsaunuka sun lalace kuma suka rasa kololuwarsu sakamakon ci gaba da zaizayar iska, ruwan sama, dusar ƙanƙara, da nau'ikan yanayin yanayi da ilimin aikin kasa. Saboda haka, hanya guda daya tilo da take bukatar sake fasalta yanayin halittarta ita ce albarkatun kasa ko samuwar sabbin tsaunuka ko tsaunuka.

Sunan orogenesis ya fito daga saitin "zinare" wanda ke nufin dutse da "genesis" wanda aka bayyana azaman asali ko halitta.

Yaya ake samunta?

Kirkirar Himalayan

Tunda yana da jinkiri sosai kuma dubban shekaru suka shude, matakai daban-daban suna faruwa ta hanyar abin da ke faruwa. Bari mu ga kowane ɗayansu:

  • Nadawa Akwai abubuwa masu laushi a saman duniya wadanda zasu iya yin juna da karo da juna. A lokacin waɗannan layukan, yankin yana fara canzawa. Ana iya ganin sa a cikin samuwar ƙananan tsaunika.
  • Rashin nasara. Yayinda kayan laushi masu taushi suke ta karo, akwai lokacin da kayan masu wuya zasu taho. A lokacin ne faɗuwar da suka kafa suka karye.
  • Tunkuɗa Wannan shine zangon karshe wanda za'a dawo da dukkan kayan zuwa asalin sa.

A lokacin juyin halittar halittar kasa, wasu lokuta fashewar tsaunuka suna fitowa. Misali, wannan shi ne abin da ya faru a batun Andes. Idan murfin da yake samarwa na inji ne ko karo, to da alama tsaunuka masu aman wuta zasu tashi. Koyaya, idan maganin yana da zafi, ee. A cikin wadanda suka yi karo, an samarda sararin samaniya cike da ninki da yankunan kauri. Wannan yana faruwa ne saboda farantin nahiya ɗaya ya ƙare akan wani. Muna iya ganin sa sarai a tsaunin Alps.

A sakamakon waɗannan matakai, an ƙirƙira tsayayyun tsari waɗanda suke da ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta. Wadannan bakunan suna da sunan belin orogenic. Suna da sauƙin ganewa yayin da suke kama da yankakkun yanka kuma suna da matsayi daidai da duwatsu. Tare da dukkan tsawon, belts ɗin suna da alaƙa da sararin samaniya inda faranti ke ɗauke da talikan. Anan ne inda ake samar da dutsen mai fitad da wuta.

Nau'in orogenesis

faranti da dutsen samuwar

Orogenesis tsari ne wanda zai iya faruwa ta hanyoyi da yawa:

  • Symmetric orogenesis: yana faruwa ne lokacin da farantin nahiyoyi biyu suka matse cikin damuwa a cikin ɓawon ƙasa. Ana iya ganin wannan orogen a zahiri a cikin Pyrenees, Alps da Himalaya.
  • Maganin Asymmetric: a wannan yanayin, an samar dashi ne saboda farantin nahiyoyi suna karo da wani na teku. Lokacin da wannan ya faru, daskararrun suna ninkawa suna tarawa a cikin yankuna na subduction. Sabili da haka, ƙananan tekun da ke ƙasa da nahiyoyin duniya sun fi yawa. Misali na wannan nau'in maganin shine Duwatsu masu duwatsu da Andes.

Nau'in Alpine mai tsayi wani bangare ne na lokacin Tertiary. A wannan tsarin, an halicci jerin tsaunuka kamar Pyrenees, tsaunukan Cantabrian da Alps. Idan muka ci gaba da haɗa layukan da suka haifar da waɗannan jerin tsaunukan, zamu iya ci gaba zuwa Gabas ta hanyar haɗa Alps da Caucasus da haɗawa da Himalayas. Ba tare da ci gaba da tafiya ba, tsaunin tsaunin Mutanen Espanya kamar Betica an kafa su da tsaunukan tsaunuka. A Amurka muna da Andes da Dutsen Rocky.

Wani nau'in orogeny shine Hercynian. An kiyasta cewa ya fara faruwa shekaru miliyan 300 da suka gabata. A cikin sassa daban-daban na duniya, yana da tasiri mai mahimmanci akan narkar da Caledonia, wanda ya shafi yawancin Turai, Tasmania, Arewacin Amurka da Appalachians.

Aƙarshe, Caledonia orogeny shine wanda ke faruwa tare da ƙaurawar faranti na tectonic wanda ya faru shekaru 400 da suka gabata. A cikin wannan gunkin an kafa sarkar Caledonia kuma har ila yau ana iya ganin alamunsa a cikin Kanada, Asiya ta Arewa, Ostiraliya da Scotland.

Ta yaya orogeny ke shafar muhalli

Hawan dutse da haɓaka

Samuwar tsaunuka da tsaunukan tsauni suna tasiri kan canjin yanayi a matakin ilimin kasa. Kamar yadda sauyin ya canza, dole ne nau'ikan halittu su saba da sababbin mahalli kuma su canza tsarin rayuwarsu. Duk wannan rikitaccen tsarin juyin halitta ne da mutane zasu koya, kasancewar lokacinmu a Duniya gajere ne. Muna rayuwa kusan shekaru 100 ne kawai a matsakaici, don haka ba za mu iya ganin komai ba, amma babu wani canjin da ya wanzu. Abinda kawai zamu iya lura dashi shine girgizar kasa da ta samo asali daga wadannan motsi na faranti na Duniya, amma ba zamu iya yaba da kaurar faranti a kowace shekara ba. Mun san cewa suna motsa fewan santimita a shekara, wani abu da ba shi da muhimmanci ga sikelin ɗan adam.

Tare da wannan bayanin zaku sami ƙarin sani game da orogenesis.


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