Matsayi na Maxwell

maxwell lissafi

A cikin tarihi an sami masana kimiyya da yawa wadanda suka ba da babbar gudummawa ga ilimin kimiyya wanda ya haifar da ci gaba sosai. Wannan shine batun masanin ilmin kimiyyar lissafi dan kasar Scotland James Clerk Maxwell. Wannan masanin kimiyyar lissafin ne ya kirkiri ka'idar ilimin zamani ta hanyar rage hujjar cewa haske ya samu ne ta hanyar lantarki da kuma maganadisu wadanda suke ci gaba da yaduwa a sararin samaniya. Duk waɗannan cirewar an gabatar dasu a cikin Matakan Maxwell don yin tunani da nuna ra'ayin ka. Wannan ka'idar ta haifar da hasashen wanzuwar igiyoyin rediyo da igiyoyin rediyo.

A cikin wannan labarin zamu gaya muku duk tarihin rayuwar, abubuwan tarihi game da ƙididdigar Maxwell.

Tarihin Maxwell

masanin kimiyya mai kyau

Ka tuna cewa duk masana kimiyya suna farawa daga aikin da wasu masana kimiyya da suka gabata suka yi. Wannan maganar an bayyana ta Newton a cikin jumlar "Duk masana kimiyya suna aiki a kafaɗar ƙattai". Wannan yana nufin cewa yawancin abubuwan da aka gabatar ana yin su ne saboda aikin da ta taɓa yi a gaban wasu masana kimiyya. Wannan gaskiyar gaskiya ce game da lamarin Maxwell tunda ya iya hada dukkan ilimin da ya riga ya kasance tsawon shekaru 150 kan batun aikinsa. Ta wannan hanyar, zaku iya bayyana ka'idojin wutar lantarki, maganadisu, kimiyyan gani da hasken wuta da alaƙar su ta zahiri.

James Clerk Maxwell an haife shi a Edinburgh a 1831. Iyalinsa na tsakiyar aji ne. Wannan mutumin koyaushe yana bayyana sha'awa ta musamman tun yarintarsa. A cikin shekaru 14 kawai na riga na rubuta takarda. A cikin wannan takarda na bayyana hanyoyin injina na farko da za su iya magance masu lankwasa. Ya yi karatu a jami'o'in Edinburgh da Cambridge inda ya ba ɗalibai da malamai mamaki da aka ba shi ikon warware matsalolin lambobi. Duk matsalolin sun bayyana a cikin ilimin lissafi da kimiyyar lissafi wadanda ke da wahala ga sauran ɗalibai.

Yana dan shekara 23 ya kammala karatun lissafi a Kwalejin Trinity kuma shekaru biyu bayan haka ya sami damar samun matsayin Farfesa na Falsafa a Kwalejin Marischal, Aberdeen. Ya kasance a wannan rukunin yanar gizon tsawon shekaru 4 yana ƙirƙira ilimi da yawa. Ta wannan hanyar ne a cikin 1860 ya sami damar samun irin wannan matsayin amma a babbar mashahurin King's College, London. A wannan lokacin ne mafi kyawun lokacin ci gaban aikinsa ya fara. A wannan wurin akwai tattalin arziki mafi kyau wanda ya ba shi damar gudanar da gwaje-gwaje da kuma gwada ra'ayoyinsa.

Matakan Maxwell

maxwell lissafi yayi bayani

Matakan Maxwell wataƙila shine mafi kyawun gado da wannan masanin ya bari. Tunda matakin sa da gudummawar sa ga kimiyya suna karuwa, Ya sami damar shiga Royal Society a cikin 1861. Anan ne jama'a ko kuma ka'idar haske ta lantarki suka dawo tare da danginsa zuwa gidan iyayensa a Scotland. An nada shi darekta a dakin bincike na Cavendish a cikin Cambridge a 1871. Daga karshe ya mutu da cutar kansa ta ciki yana da shekara 48 a 1879.

Shine buga labarin mai taken "Kaidar tsayayyen yanayin maganadiso" inda lissafin Maxwell ya bayyana a karon farko. Waɗannan ƙididdigar sune waɗanda ke aiki don bayyana a bayyane kuma a taƙaice dukkanin dokokin halittu game da wutar lantarki da maganadiso. Dole ne a tuna cewa an tsara su tun ƙarni na XNUMX kuma sun dogara da dokokin Ampère, Faraday da Lenz. A halin yanzu, shekaru da yawa daga baya Veviside da Gibbs suka gabatar da bayanin vector da aka yi amfani da shi.

Muhimmancin lissafin Maxwell

lissafin lissafi

Ofimar waɗannan ƙididdigar kuma ba wai kawai ta kasance a cikin haɗuwa da dukkanin ra'ayoyin dukkanin masana kimiyya waɗanda ke ba da bayanai akan wutar lantarki da maganadisu ba. Kuma hakane Matakan Maxwell sun bayyana kusancin dangantakar dake tsakanin wutar lantarki da maganadiso. Daga lissafinsa, za'a iya gano sauran lissafin, kamar lissafin raƙuman ruwa wanda yayi aiki don hango wanzuwar raƙuman ruwa na yanayin electromagnetic waɗanda zasu iya yaɗuwa da saurin haske.

Daga wannan ne za'a iya kammala shi cewa haske da maganadisu bangarori ne na abu guda kuma haske shine tashin hankali na lantarki. Godiya ga wannan, aikin Maxwell yayi aiki ne don hadawa da kuma hade kimiyyan gani da hasken lantarki zuwa ga electromagnetism kuma ya bayyana asalin electromagnetic da haske yake dashi. Hasken lantarki a cikin hasken ya kasance sakamakon gwaji a dakin gwaje-gwaje kuma masanin kimiyyar lissafi dan kasar Jamus Heinrich Hertz ne ya aiwatar dashi a shekarar 1887, shekaru bayan mutuwar Maxwell.

Ana iya yin wannan ta hanyar gina oscillator wanda yayi aiki azaman emitter da resonator wanda yayi aiki azaman mai karɓa. Godiya ga waɗannan na'urori yana yiwuwa ƙirƙirar raƙuman ruwa da karɓar su a wuri mai nisa kuma wannan ya haifar da wani injiniyan Italiyanci mai suna Guillermo Marconi zai iya kammala dabara don samar da juyin juya halin fasaha. Wannan juyin juya halin fasaha shine sadarwa ta rediyo. Wasu daga cikin abubuwan yau da kullun da muke dasu yau, kamar wayoyin hannu, suna dogara ne akan wannan fasahar da Guillermo Marconi ya gano.

Duk waɗannan dalilan sun isa suyi imani da cewa ƙididdigar Maxwell, wanda a farko da alama ya fi fahimtar ilimin kimiyya fiye da kimiyya, sun ƙare da samun manyan aikace-aikace a fasahar yau. Aikace-aikacen lissafin Maxwell yazo ya canza duniya ta wannan hanyar zamu iya sadarwa ta hanyar amfani da sadarwa.

Gado

Duk waɗannan gudummawar ba a keɓance su kawai ga ka'idar lantarki da haske ba. Ka tuna cewa Maxwell ya kasance masanin ilmin lissafi ne wanda kuma ya dukufa ga karatun tasirin gas da thermodynamics. Anyi amfani da waɗannan bangarorin a cikin hanyoyin nazarin ƙididdiga daban-daban don ƙayyade yiwuwar kwayar zarra a cikin narkewar gas tana da saurin gudu. Wannan binciken shine A yau ya kira shi rarraba Maxwell-Boltzmann.

Ina fatan cewa tare da wannan bayanin zaku iya koyo game da lissafin Maxwell da mahimmancin su.

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