Mauna Kea

dutsen mai aman wuta mafi girma a duniya

Mun san cewa a duniyar tamu akwai nau'o'in aman wuta da yawa tare da halaye na musamman kuma fiye da ɗaya na iya ba mu mamaki. Ofaya daga cikinsu shine Mauna Kea. Shi ne mafi kololuwa a jihar Hawaii kuma dutsen mai aman wuta ne wanda, idan aka ɗauke shi daga gindinsa a matsayin farkon farawa, ana ɗaukarsa mafi girma a duniya. Idan muka ƙidaya shi daga wannan wurin, ya zarce har Dutsen Everest.

Don haka, za mu keɓe wannan labarin don gaya muku duk halaye, asali da fashewar dutsen Mauna Kea.

Babban fasali

fashewar lawa

Sunan Mauna Kea ya fito ne daga Hauwa'u kuma yana nufin farin dutse. Yana daya daga cikin tsofaffin tsaunuka masu aman wuta da suka kunshi wannan tsibiri. Ita ce ta huɗu mafi tsufa kuma 'yan asalin Hawaii sun ɗauki tsattsarkan dutsen. Yana da aman wuta a inda za ku iya samun babban rayayyun halittu da muhallin halittu waɗanda suka haɗa da mazaunin flora da fauna, don haka yana da babban mahimmancin al'adu da na halitta. Anyi la'akari da mafaka ga yawancin nau'ikan gida kuma ba kawai yana da mahimmanci a cikin Hawaii ba, amma a duk faɗin duniya.

Ofaya daga cikin abubuwan ban sha'awa wanda dutsen dutsen Mauna Kea yayi fice saboda shine yana da tsayi sama da Dutsen Everest. Ana daukar ta mafi girman aman wuta a duniya muddin aka ƙidaya tsayin daga gindinta.

An lasafta shi a matsayin dutsen mai aman wuta. Tana cikin yankin tsakiyar tsakiyar tsibirin da ke tsakiyar Tekun Pacific. Yawancin har yanzu yana ƙarƙashin ruwa, wanda shine dalilin da yasa ake kiran Dutsen Everest mafi girma. Daga kasa har zuwa bakin tekun, tsayinsa ya fi mita 9.000, amma ba a san takamaiman adadin ba. An kiyasta cewa tsayinsa ya kai tsakanin mita 9.330 da 9.966, ko ma fiye da mita 10.000. Dangane da binciken yanayin ƙasa na Amurka, yana da mita 4.205 sama da matakin teku. Its girma ne kamar 3.200 cubic kilomita.

Dutsen dutsen mai garkuwa ne wanda saman dutsen ya rufe da dusar ƙanƙara. Ee, kodayake Hawaii ba wuri ne da ke da alaƙa da sanyi ba, Mauna Kea yana da kankara kuma, a cikin watanni na hunturu, yana yin rikodin dusar ƙanƙara (saboda haka sunan). Waɗannan halayen suna sa ya zama sanannen wurin zuwa aikin wasanni irin na kankara da kankara. Saboda tsayinsa, an shimfida shimfidar wuri, iska mai tsabta da tazara daga manyan biranen, telescopes da abubuwan lura.

Mauna Kea samuwar aman wuta

mai kyau

Muna magana ne game da dutsen mai aman wuta wanda zai iya farkawa a kowane lokaci. Kuma shine kusan duk tsaunukan da ba sa aiki zasu iya farkawa a kowane lokaci kuma su sake shiga sake -sake na fashewa.

An kiyasta Mauna Kea kusan shekaru miliyan 1. Kasancewar dutsen garkuwar garkuwar garkuwar jiki, kusan an kafa shi gabaɗaya ta tara tarin yadudduka masu yawa na ruwa, yana zubowa ta kowace fuska, yana yin gangara mai laushi da siffa mai faɗi. Koyaya, lava a cikin wannan yanayin yana da kauri sosai kuma an kafa gangara mai tsayi. Musamman, an ce tana cikin yanayin tallafi saboda ta shiga wani sauyi, kuma ayyukan fashewar sa sun ragu fiye da shekaru 400 da suka gabata. Duk da haka, kamar kowane dutsen mai fitad da wuta, yana iya farkawa a kowane lokaci.

Asalinsa wuri ne mai zafi a Hawaii, yankin da ke da ayyukan tsautsayi. Faifan Pacific ya zame ta wuce wannan wurin, inda magma na abun da ke ciki ya tashi, yana lalata ɓoyayyen teku kuma yana bayyana a cikin lava yayin fashewar. A cikin wannan ma'anar, Mauna Kea ya fara a matsayin dutsen mai aman wuta a ƙarƙashin ruwa, har sai yadudduka na fashewar lava ya mamaye kuma ya ba shi sifar sa ta yanzu. Yawancin tsarinsa an gina shi a cikin Pleistocene.

Ayyukan fara garkuwa sun fara fiye da shekaru 60,000 da suka gabata; har zuwa shekaru 300,000, bayan haka ya fara zubar da basalt alkaline.

Mauna Kea ya fashe

dutsen mai fitad da wuta

Lokaci na ƙarshe da Mauna Kea ya ɓarke ​​shine shekaru 4.500-4.600 da suka gabata. Yana aiki sosai a matakin garkuwar kusan shekaru 500.000 da suka gabata, kuma bayan isa matakin garkuwar baya, aikin ya yi tsit har sai da ya zama dutsen mai aman wuta.

Akwai ƙarancin tabbatattun lokuta na fashewar tarihi; wato kusan guda shida, dukkansu sun faru kafin Zamanin Zamani.Kusan shekaru 4.000-6.000 da suka wuce, wataƙila ramuka 7 sun ɓullo kuma suna wakiltar wasu fashe-fashen na baya-bayan nan. Babu shakka wannan taron na ƙarshe ya haifar da kwararowar iska da iskar gas da yawa a ɓangarorin arewa da kudu a wani lokaci a cikin Holocene.

Geology

Mauna Kea yana daya daga cikin tsaunukan wuta guda biyar masu zafi wadanda suka hada da Babban Tsibirin Hawaii kuma shine tsibiri mafi girma kuma mafi kankanta a cikin sarkin Hawaii Seamount Chain. A babban taron ta, dutsen dutsen Mauna Kea ba kaldera ne da ake gani ba, amma jerin cones da aka yi da ash da pumice stone. Ana iya tunanin akwai wani dutsen mai aman wuta a saman dutsen, wanda rufin ƙasa ya ruɓe daga fashewar dutsen mai aman wuta.

Dutsen dutsen Mauna Kea yana da girman sama da murabba'in kilomita 3,200 kuma yawansa ya yi yawa wanda, tare da mauna Loa mai makwabtaka, ya haifar da ɓacin rai a cikin zurfin teku mai zurfin kilomita 6. Dutsen mai aman wuta yana ci gaba da zamewa da matsewa a ƙarƙashinsa a ƙimar ƙasa da 0,2 mm a shekara.

Mauna Kea shine kawai dutsen mai fitad da wuta a cikin Hawaii tare da tsananin ƙanƙara, gami da yaren glacial da glaciation. Ana iya samun irin wannan adibas na kankara a kan Mauna Loa, amma waɗannan ruɓaɓɓen ruwan an rufe su ta hanyar kwararar ruwa daga baya. Kodayake Hawaii tana cikin yankuna masu zafi, raguwar digiri 1 a zazzabi sama da shekaru daban -daban na kankara ya isa a ajiye dusar ƙanƙara a saman dutsen a duk lokacin bazara, ta haka ta zama ƙanƙara. An yi dusar ƙanƙara uku a cikin shekaru 180.000 da suka gabata, wanda ake kira Fassara.

Ina fatan cewa tare da wannan bayanin zaku iya ƙarin koyo game da dutsen dutsen Mauna Kea da halayensa.


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