Lura a cikin yanayi

na'urori masu auna yanayin yanayi

Domin sanin yanayin yanayi na kowane bangare na duniya, lura da duniyar tamu yana da mahimmanci. Godiya ga mutane da yawa kayan kallo za mu iya sani har ma da hasashen yanayin yanayi kusan kowace kusurwa ta duniya.

Don sanin yanayin yanayin yanayi, ana yin awo a cikin dubban tashoshin hasashen yanayi wadanda ba wai kawai a doron kasa ba, har ma a kan teku, a wurare daban-daban na sararin samaniya da har ma da tauraron dan adam daga sararin samaniya. Ta yaya na'urorin da ke lura da duniyarmu da yanayin yanayi suke aiki? Yaya muhimmancin su ta fuskar hasashen yanayi?

Lura a cikin yanayi

lura ya zama dole a yanayin yanayi

Na'urorin auna ma'aunin yanayi daban-daban kamar matsa lamba, iska, zafi, ruwan sama, yanayin zafi, da dai sauransu Suna cikin tsattsauran matsayi a duk faɗin duniya. Suna nan duka a wurare a yankin, kamar filaye, duwatsu, kwari, birane, da kuma hanyoyin da jiragen ruwa da jiragen sama ke bi, suna cin gajiyar gaskiyar cewa dukkansu suna da kayan yanayin yanayi a jirgi.

Amfani da za a iya yi da bayanan da duk waɗannan kafofin lura suka bayar ya banbanta sosai: daga rikodin ɗan lokaci kawai a takamaiman tashoshi, zuwa bayani game da hasashen yanayi. A kowane hali, cibiyoyin kula da yanayi suna tattara bayanai ta yanki, aiwatar da shi, sarrafa ingancin sa, da rarraba shi ga masu amfani waɗanda zasu buƙaci shi don nazarin yanayin.

Lokacin da aka yi sadarwa ga jama'a game da sakamakon lura da yanayin yanayi, ana kiransa rahoton meteorological. Saboda haka, ana kiran sautin labarai «bangaren«. Sakamakon lura da yanayin yanayi ana iya nuna shi da baki da kuma wakilci. A yadda aka saba, ana amfani da taswirar yankin da za a lura da kuma sauyin yanayin yanayi da aka lura da kuma sauyin halittar su ana wakiltar shi.

Tare da saitin masu canjin yanayin yanayi da aka karanta, ana iya gina samfura don taimakawa cikin hasashensu. A gare shi, suna dogara ne da tsarin aiki da halayen waɗannan masu canjin yanayin yanayi ta fuskar yanayin muhalli da yadda za su iya haɓaka cikin lokaci ana nazarin su. Hasashen yanayi yana da matukar mahimmanci a cikin rayuwar yau da kullun don iya sanin yadda yanayin zai kasance a cikin fewan kwanaki masu zuwa kuma iya aiki bisa ga yanayin.

Misalan hasashen yanayi suna amfani da bayanan da aka samu bayan shekaru masu yawa na rubuce-rubuce don ƙirƙirar halayen da ke haifar da yanayin yankin. Kamar yadda kuka sani, yanayi ba irin yanayin yake ba. Hasashen yanayi yana nuni yanayin masu canjin yanayi a wani lokaci. Koyaya, canjin yanayi shine saitin waɗannan masu canjin a tsawon shekaru. Misali, wani yanayi yana iya bayyana, lokacin da masu canji kamar su zafin jiki, hazo a cikin yanayin dusar ƙanƙara, iska, da sauransu. Suna samar da yanayi mai sanyi, wanda ƙarancin yanayin ƙasa da ƙananan sifili ya mamaye.

Na'urar lura da yanayi

tashoshin yanayi suna auna masu canji

Tabbas, asalin duk lura da yanayin yanayi ya ta'allaka ne akan kayan kimiyyar yanayi wadanda ake amfani dasu don daukar ma'aunai. Wannan tebur yana taƙaita wasu kayan aikin da aka fi amfani da su:

Tashar meteorological yawanci tana da waɗannan kayan aikin da yawa, koda kuwa duk sun cika sosai. Don awo na masu canjin yanayin yanayi da za'ayi daidai, dole ne a aiwatar dasu bisa ga ƙa'idodin da aka kafa ta Kungiyar Kula da Yanayi ta Duniya. Waɗannan ƙa'idodin suna dogara ne akan madaidaicin wuri, fuskantarwa da yanayin muhalli waɗanda zasu iya shafar na'urori masu aunawa da canza sakamakon da aka samu.

Don bayanan su zama masu tsauri, dole ne shingen tashar meteorological ya kasance yana da akwatin aikawa, wani irin farin keji keji na katako wanda yakai mita 1.5 daga kasa, a ciki wanda akwai ma'aunin zafi da zafi, ma'aunin zafi da bazuwar. Kari akan haka, a lokuta da yawa, tashoshin suna da hasumiyar yanayi. Ana auna na'urori masu aunawa kamar su ma'aunin zafi da zafi, anemometers da vanes, wadanda ke sanar da mu game da yanayin yanayi a wurare daban-daban.

Kula da tauraron dan adam na lura da yanayi

tauraron dan adam da ke lura da yanayin

Kamar yadda aka ambata a baya kuma ba tare da wata shakka ba, tauraron dan adam masu lura sune mafi rikitarwa, amma waɗanda ke ba da kyakkyawan sakamako. Matsayin da tauraron dan adam yake, a kewaya duniya, yana basu damar samun damar hangen nesa, wanda yafi fadi da fadi fiye da na duk wata na'ura dake saman duniya.

Satellites karɓa radiationarfin wutar lantarki da yake fitarwa da kuma nunawa ta Duniya. Na farko ya fito ne daga kansa kuma na biyun ya fito ne daga Rana, amma yana bayyana ne a saman duniya da kuma sararin samaniya kafin ya kai ga tauraron dan adam. Tauraron dan adam din suna daukar wasu mitocin wannan iskar, masu karfi daban-daban gwargwadon yanayin sararin samaniya, don aiwatar da bayanan daga baya da kuma fadada hotunan da za a karba a tashoshin kasa, inda za a fassara su.

Za a iya rarraba tauraron dan adam na yanayi bisa ga kewayar da aka kafa ta kuma gwargwadon nau'inta:

Geostationary tauraron dan adam

geostationary tauraron dan adam an gyara su

Waɗannan tauraron dan adam suna juyawa a lokaci guda da Duniya ke yi, saboda haka suna ganin kawai tsayayyen wurin da yake kan mashigar ƙasa. Yawanci, waɗannan tauraron dan adam suna nesa sosai da Duniya (kusan kilomita 40.000).

Abubuwan fa'idodin da waɗannan tauraron dan adam suka bayar shine, kasancewar suna da nisa, filin ganinsu yana da faɗi sosai, yakai girman duka fuskar duniya. Bugu da kari, suna kuma samar da bayanai a ci gaba game da wani yanki da kake son kiyayewa da kuma ba da izinin canjin yanayi a wannan yankin.

Polar tauraron dan adam

tauraron dan adam na kusa ya fi kusa

Polar satellites sune waɗanda suke kewaya kusa da waɗanda suka gabata (tsakanin tsayin kilomita 100 zuwa 200) don haka suna ba mu kyakkyawar duban duniyarmu. Abinda ya rage shine, kodayake yana ba mu hotuna tare da ƙuduri mafi girma kuma mafi bayyane, suna iya kiyaye ƙasa da sarari.

Tauraron dan adam na tauraron dan adam yana da kayan aikin da ya dace don kama bayanai game da kaddarorin duniyan da dama, amma akasarinsu yana daukar ganuwa da kuma yaduwar lantarki. Daga wannan bayanin ana samar da nau'ikan hotunan tauraron dan adam guda biyu, wadanda ake kira zangon bakan da suka dace da su. Idan an sanya hotunan da aka karɓa ɗayan ɗayan, ana duba su a matsayin jeri, za mu iya jin daɗin motsin gajimare, kamar yadda mutumin da ke yanayi yake nuna mana a talabijin a kowace rana.

Nau'in lura

Dogaro da bayanan da nau'ikan tauraron meteorological meteorological suka tattara, za mu iya yin taswirar lura tare da hotunan iri biyu da tauraron ɗan adam ɗin ke tattarawa: Na farko, akwai hotunan da ake iya gani a bayyane kuma, na biyu, waɗanda suke cikin infrared.

Hotunan da ake iya gani (VIS)

hotunan bayyane kawai a rana

Hotunan da ake gani sun zama hoto mai kama da wanda zamu iya ganewa idan muna kan tauraron dan adam, tunda, kamar yadda idanunmu zasuyi, tauraron dan adam yana ɗaukar hasken rana bayan yayi tunani akan gajimare, ƙasa ko teku, dangane da yanki.

Haskewar hoton ya dogara da abubuwa uku: tsananin hasken rana, kusurwar ɗaga rana da nunawar jikin da aka gani. Matsakaicin kewayon (ko albedo) na Tsarin Duniya-Atmosphere shine 30%, amma, kamar yadda muka gani a babin da ya gabata, dusar ƙanƙara da wasu gizagizai suna iya nuna haske mai yawa, don haka a cikin hoton tauraron ɗan adam da zasu bayyana sun fi haske, misali, teku.

Kodayake gizagizai masu kyakkyawan tunani ne, albedo dinsu ya dogara da kauri da yanayin kwayar da ta samar dasu. Cirrus, alal misali, kasancewa gajimaren gajimare wanda aka ƙirƙira shi da lu'ulu'u na kankara, da ƙyar yake nuna hasken rana, don haka yana da wahala a ganshi a cikin hoton da ake iya gani (sun kusan bayyana).

Hoto ta Infrared (IR)

hotunan infrared suna auna zafin da jikin yake fitarwa

Ofarfin radiation na infrared da jiki ke fitarwa yana da alaƙa da yanayin zafinsa kai tsaye. Don haka, gajimare mai sanyi da sanyi, kamar cirrus, zai bayyana da haske sosai a cikin irin wannan hoton. Hamada a tsakar rana, idan babu gizagizai a sama, zai bayyana a matsayin wuri mai duhu sosai a cikin hoton, saboda yawan zafinsa. Za'a iya inganta hotunan infrared a launi dangane da yanayin zafin yankin, saboda haka sauƙaƙe gano wuraren sanyi sosai, yawanci yayi daidai da saman girgije.

Infrared hotuna sanya wahalar rarrabe gajimare da damisaTunda zafin jikinsu yayi kama da na farfajiyar inda suke, zasu iya rikicewa da shi.

Ana amfani da hotunan infrared galibi da daddare, tunda babu haske ga tauraron dan adam da ke ɗaukar hotunan ganuwa don ɗauka. Dole ne kuyi tunanin cewa ko da rana ko da dare, jikin yana fitar da zafi kuma, ya danganta da yanayin zafinsu, zasu zama fari ko duhu. Sabili da haka, ana amfani da nau'ikan lura guda biyu don mafi dacewa da bayanin kuma kammala shi zuwa matsakaicin.

Tare da wannan bayanin, zaku riga kun sani game da yanayin yanayi da mahimmancin lura don ƙirƙirar ƙirar da ke taimakawa cikin hasashen yanayi.


Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

Sharhi, bar naka

Bar tsokaci

Your email address ba za a buga. Bukata filayen suna alama da *

*

*

  1. Mai alhakin bayanan: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Dalilin bayanan: Gudanar da SPAM, gudanar da sharhi.
  3. Halacci: Yarda da yarda
  4. Sadarwar bayanan: Ba za a sanar da wasu bayanan ga wasu kamfanoni ba sai ta hanyar wajibcin doka.
  5. Ajiye bayanai: Bayanin yanar gizo wanda Occentus Networks (EU) suka dauki nauyi
  6. Hakkoki: A kowane lokaci zaka iyakance, dawo da share bayanan ka.

  1.   Tsoho m

    A'a, ba a kiran labaran labarai bangare saboda yana ba da bayanan yanayi (wanda ba wanda yake kiransa da wani bangare sai dai yanayi).
    Ana kiran labaran labarai bangare, kuma kasa da kasa akai-akai, saboda sun gaji daga rediyon kasa na Spain al'ada da aikin yau da kullun na bada shi, na bada bangaren yakin hukuma, na sanannen yakin basasa na 1936/1939, wanda ana watsa shi kowace rana daga hedkwatar Janarissimo Franco.
    "Yi shiru, zasu bada rahoto!" Kiran faɗakarwa ne bayan sanarwar da aka saba bayarwa ta ba duk wanda ke da iko a cikin gidan, don haka yin shuru zai ba da damar sauraron muhimman labarai na yaƙi.
    Yakin ya wuce, talabijin ya iso (1956), al'ada ta kasance, gaskiya ce sosai, na kiran labarai "sashi"
    A cikin tsohuwar zamanin Mariano Madina, babu wanda ya ce shi "mutumin yanki ne", amma mutumin lokacin.