Crystallography

A cikin ilimin geology akwai reshe wanda ke mai da hankali kan nazarin kwayar lu'ulu'u wacce ke samar da ita ta dabi'a. Labari ne game da kristallography. Ilimin kimiyya ne wanda ke hulɗa da nazarin dokokin da ke jagorantar samuwar lu'ulu'u, tsarin yanayin halittar su, haɓakar sinadarai da halayensu. Kamar yadda akwai halaye daban-daban na lu'ulu'u, ana rarraba lu'ulu'u zuwa rassa da yawa.

A cikin wannan labarin za mu gaya muku duk halaye, karatu da muhimmancin kristallography.

Rassan kristallography

kristallography

Tunda ilimin kimiyya ne wanda ke nazarin samuwar lu'ulu'u da duk yanayin halittar su, sinadarai da kayan jikin su, an rarraba rassa daban daban:

  • Kirar joometric. Yana mai da hankali kan nazarin abubuwan da ke tattare da lissafi.
  • Kayan kwalliya na kimiyya ko kimiyyar kimiyyar sinadarai. Kamar yadda sunan sa ya nuna yana mai da hankali ne akan ilimin kimiyyar lu'ulu'u.
  • Kristallolin Jiki ko kyan gani. Yana mai da hankali kan nazarin kaddarorin jiki na lu'ulu'u.

A cikin ɓangaren kimiyyar lissafin lissafi, ilimin halittar waje na lu'ulu'u da daidaitattun sassan su ana nazarin su. Hakanan ana la'akari da daidaitattun hanyoyin sadarwar da suka samar da lu'ulu'u. Sabili da haka, ba kawai nau'in ilimin visu bane, amma ana buƙatar microscopes masu ƙarfi. Lokacin da aka kula da kwayar lu'ulu'u daga mahangar macroscopic, dole ne a yi la'akari da ita azaman mai kama da kama. Yana da halaye masu banƙyama da daidaituwa. Daga nan ne lokacin da ake nazarin daidaitattun lu'ulu'u ya kamata a kula da shi azaman mai kamanceceniya da mai rarrabe wanda ke da halaye na musamman dangane da asalin samuwar sa.

Lokacin da muke nazarin kristallography na sinadarai muna mai da hankali kan tsarin atoms a cikin kwayar lu'ulu'u. Wato, yana mai da hankali kan nazarin tsarin ciki da waje na lu'ulu'u. A wannan yanayin, ya zama dole a gabatar da ma'anar ainihin lu'ulu'u tunda ya zama dole a yi la’akari da ajizancin da zai iya samu, sabanin abin da ke faruwa da kristallography na geometric. Ana iya cewa kristallography reshe ne wanda ke samo asali daga nazarin ma'adinai.

A cikin ilimin ilimin kasa (geology) ana nazarin samuwar abubuwa da duwatsu da ma'adanai. Bangaren da ke mayar da hankali kan nazarin ma'adanai da ma'adinai. Tunda yawancin ma'adanai lu'ulu'u ne na kwarai dangane da asalin su, ana haifuwarsa ne daga reshen kristallography.

A ƙarshe, lokacin da muke nazarin kristal na zahiri muna mai da hankali kan kaddarorin jiki na lu'ulu'u. Da zarar an yi nazarin waɗannan kaddarorin na jiki, sai a yi ƙoƙari ya shafi abin da ya ƙunsa da tsarin. Ta wannan hanyar, yana yiwuwa a sami bayanai daga dukkan lu'ulu'u.

Aiwatar da Ma'adanai

lissafin kristal

Kamar yadda muka ambata a baya, ilimin ma'adinai wani bangare ne na ilimin kimiyya a cikin ilimin ƙasa wanda ke da alhakin nazarin ma'adanai. Yana da kyakkyawar alaƙa da kristallography tunda yana nazarin abubuwan da ke cikin sunadarai, tsarin lu'ulu'u, ƙaddarorin jiki da yanayin almara na duka lu'ulu'u da sauran ma'adanai.

Ma'adanai Ana iya raba su zuwa ilimin kimiyyar jiki, na zahiri da na maganadisu. Hakanan akwai wasu nau'ikan nau'ikan ma'adinan da ake amfani da su kamar ƙaddara, ma'anar ma'adinai da ma'adinai.

Chemistry shine ke da alhakin binciken abubuwan sinadarai na ma'adanai. A wani ɓangare na ilimin ma'adanai na jiki, yana mai da hankali ne akan nazarin kayan aikin injiniya, lantarki, ƙwarewar gani da magnetic waɗanda ma'adanai daban-daban suke da shi.

Ka tuna cewa ilimin halittar jiki an haife shi azaman ilimin kimiya a cikin ilimin ƙasa. Amfani da shi gabaɗaya ga ɗakunan ma'adinai waɗanda suke da amfani ga mutum. Nazarin amfanin kowane ɗayan da cikakken ci gabansa tun daga zamanin farko ya sanya fasalin bayanin sabon ma'adanai da aka gano wani abu mai muhimmanci. Ta wannan hanyar an wakilta ayyukan farko da ke ma'amala da ma'adinai. Tunda Aristotle littafin Duwatsu ya wanzu a 315 BC. Dokokin Rome de l'Isle da Haüy game da halaye masu ƙyalƙyali an ba da damar inganta hanyoyin ƙaddara ma'adinai.

Kuma shine ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadaddun gargajiya sun dogara ne da kwatancen abubuwan ƙimar jiki waɗanda aka fi bayyana kuma ana iya kiyaye su a cikin ma'adinai. Duk wannan la'akari da cewa ba lallai ba ne a yi amfani da na'urori masu rikitarwa da na zamani don haskaka halaye na ma'adinai ko lu'ulu'u da ake magana a kai. Daga baya, tare da amfani da madubin hangen nesa, an sami babban ci gaba a fasahar ma'adinai da ƙudurin kristal.

Abun ciki a cikin kristallography da mineralogy

Nazarin da ƙaddara abubuwan da ke cikin sunadaran suna da mahimmanci a cikin dukkanin nazarin kristallographic da ma'adinai. Koyaya, wannan haɗin sunadaran shi kaɗai bai isa ya gano duk ma'adanai da lu'ulu'u da suke wanzu ba. Kuma akwai wasu keɓaɓɓun cations waɗanda suke musanyawa kamar micas, chlorites, kayan ado da zeolites da wasu ma'adanai daban-daban waɗanda suka dace da mahaɗan haɗin sunadarai iri ɗaya. Misali, muna da lu'u lu'u lu'u da mai hoto wanda shine ma'adanai daban-daban amma tare da nau'ikan sunadarai iri ɗaya. Akwai kuma aragonite da ƙididdigewa.

Haihuwar kimiyya da ake kira kristallography ana ɗauka lokacin Stensen yana nuna daidaituwar kusurwar dihedral na fuskokin lu'ulu'u mai lu'ulu'u. Daga nan ne abubuwan da suka biyo baya suka zama janar. Kuma akwai cewa akwai abubuwa da yawa da aka gano na abubuwa da kuma damar binciken sunadarai wanda ya haifar da yawan rikice-rikice a duniyar kristallography.

Lu'ulu'un ba komai bane face tabbatacce a cikin yanayi mai karau wanda a karkashin wasu halaye na samuwar ya bayyana a cikin sifar polyhedron. Ofaya daga cikin mahimman halaye na lu'ulu'u shine cewa zai iyakance shi ne ta fuskokin lu'ulu'u.

Akwai gilashi iri daban-daban, bari muga menene:

  • Single crystal: an bayyana shi azaman lu'ulu'u ɗaya. Kowane lu'ulu'u na garnet ya zama lu'ulu'u ɗaya.
  • Crystal tara: an bayyana shi azaman rukunin ƙananan lu'ulu'u waɗanda suke girma tare. Suna iya bayyana a cikin sifofi daban-daban.
  • Tsarin Crystal: Lokaci ne kuma tsari mai tsari na girma uku a sararin samaniya wanda atamfa na daskararru a cikin yanayi mai kyau.

Ina fatan cewa tare da wannan bayanin zaku iya koyo game da kristallography da abin da yake karantawa.


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