kogin euphrates

Euphrates kogin a cikin birane

El Kogin Yufiretis shi ne kogi mafi tsawo a kudu maso yammacin Asiya, don haka ya fi Tigris tsayi. Kogin Yufiretis shine kogin mafi tsayi a kudu maso yammacin Asiya, don haka ya fi Tigris tsayi. Ruwan da ake amfani da shi ya zama dole don sha, wanka, dafa abinci da sauran ayyukan yau da kullun, sannan kuma tushen kifi ne.

A cikin wannan labarin za mu gaya muku duk abin da kuke buƙatar sani game da Kogin Furat, halaye da muhimmancinsa.

Babban fasali

kogin euphrates

Kogin Yufiretis shine kogin mafi tsayi a kudu maso yammacin Asiya, don haka ya fi Tigris tsayi. An kiyasta tsawonsa ya kai kimanin kilomita 2.800, tun daga haihuwarsa a Turkiyya har zuwa lokacin da aka kammala shi a Iraki, ya ratsa wasu sassan kasar Siriya. Ruwan ruwa na ruwa yana da kimanin tsawo na 500.000 km2, wanda ya shafi kasashe uku da yankunan Kuwait da Saudi Arabiya. Madogararsa ba tafki ko dusar ƙanƙara ba ne, a'a mahaɗar kogin Karasu da kogin Murat ne a tsayin sama da mita 3.000.

Kogin ya ratsa kudu-maso-kudu-maso-gabas zuwa Iraki, arewa da Basra, inda ya hade da Tigris don samar da Shatt al-Arab, wanda a karshe ya shiga cikin Tekun Farisa. Koguna kaɗan ne ke ciyar da shi; a kasar Sham, Sajur, Balikh, da Jabur ne kawai masu ruwa da tsaki, na karshen kuma su ne mafi muhimmanci wajen samar da mafi girman fitar ruwa. Da zarar a Iraki, Euphrates ba shi da wasu magudanan ruwa.

Ruwan ruwan sama da dusar ƙanƙara ne ke ciyar da kogin, baya ga kogunan da aka ambata da kuma wasu ƙananan koguna. Yawancin kwararar ruwan suna fitowa ne daga ruwan sama a tsaunukan Armeniya, tare da mafi girman girma yawanci yana faruwa tsakanin Afrilu da Mayu. Matsakaicin ƙaura shine 356 m3/s kuma matsakaicin shine 2514 m3/s.

Samuwar Euphrates

kogin euphrates akan taswira

Ba a san asalin Kogin Yufiretis ba. Tuni a cikin Cretaceous, an kafa wani baƙin ciki da ake kira structural trench inda ruwa zai daidaita kuma za'a adana sediments a jere. A lokacin farkon Miocene, wani ƙaramin mashigar ruwa ya haɗa proto-Mediterranean tare da magudanan ruwa na yankin Mesofotamiya na arewa maso yammacin Siriya da kuma yankunan da ke kusa da Turkiyya a yau.

A cikin tarihi an san shi da zinariya shuɗi kuma ya kasance tushen rayuwa na dubban shekaru. A gefenta akwai wayewa waɗanda kaɗan ke tunawa a yau. Tun haihuwarsa a kasar Turkiyya. Yawan kogin ya ragu a kowace shekara.

Tare da babban kogin Jabr, ya kasance wurin da garuruwan Musulmi, Kirista, Kurdawa, Turkmen, da Yahudiya-Larabawa suke. A wannan yanki shine inda aka samo mafi dadewar bayanan wayewa.

Tsire-tsire da namun daji na Kogin Euphrates

Yufiretis, kamar Tigris, ruwa ne na musamman domin yana bi ta tsakiyar babban yanki mai bushewa. Duk da haka, saboda ruwan da tasirinsu a tsaka-tsakin kogunan, an kafa wani yanki mai albarka wanda ke cikin yankin tarihi da ake kira "Crescent Mai Haihuwa", wanda siffar jinjirin watan ya taso daga Tigris-Euphrates zuwa Sassan kogin Nilu. a Masar, ta hanyar Assuriya da arewa zuwa hamadar Siriya da yankin Sinai.

Amfanin ruwa yana ba da damar tsira da yawancin tsiro da dabbobi, waɗanda wasunsu na musamman ne. Alal misali, kunkuru Euphrates softshell yana zaune ne kawai a cikin kwarin Tigris-Euphrates da wasu ƴan koguna a Gabas ta Tsakiya; yana da matuƙar ƙarancin faranti na ƙasusuwa waɗanda galibi suna taurin harsashi na kunkuru. Mafi yawan kifaye a cikin ruwa sune irin kifi, wanda kuma aka sani da carps, irin su Tenuolaaosa ilisha, Acanthobrama marmid, Alburnus caeruleus, Aspius vorax, Luciobarbus eocinus, Alburnus sellal, Barbus grypus, da Barbus sharpeyi, da sauran nau'in taxa. Misalai sun haɗa da Glyptothorax cous, Nemacheilus hamwii, da Turcinoemacheilus kosswigi. Melanopsis nodosa molluscs na iya yaduwa a Iraki.

Basin gida ne ga tsuntsayen ruwa da wadanda ba na ruwa ba, dabbobi masu shayarwa, kwari, da masu amphibians.. Basara warbler, da Iraqi otter, pygmy cormorant, gosling, Mesopotamian gerbil da Turawa otter sun fi fice.

A galibin bakin ruwa na sama, ciyayi na xeric da wasu nau’o’in itatuwa, irin su itacen oak, suna girma, amma a kusa da kan iyakar Syria da Iraqi, yanayin yanayin yakan canza zuwa ciyayi, wanda ya kunshi kananan tsiro da ciyayi, irin su sagebrush da ciyawa. Shrubs, rushewa da wasu nau'ikan tsire-tsire na ruwa suna girma a kan bankunan.

Muhimmancin tattalin arzikin Kogin Furat

Euphrates

Euphrates ya kasance, kuma har yanzu yana nan. daya daga cikin manyan garuruwan Gabas ta Tsakiya da dama. Ruwan da ke cikinta yana takin kasa da ke kusa don noma, yana samar da abinci, musamman hatsi irin su alkama da sha'ir, da bishiyoyi irin su bishiyar ɓaure. Ana buƙatar ruwa mai daɗi don sha, wanka, dafa abinci, da sauran ayyukan yau da kullun, kuma tushen kifi ne. Saboda wadannan dalilai, tun zamanin da ake amfani da kogin a matsayin hanyar ciniki, duk da cewa ruwansa bai dace da manyan jiragen ruwa ba. A halin yanzu ana kewayawa zuwa birnin Hit na Iraki.

Gina hanyoyin samar da wutar lantarki na da matukar muhimmanci ga tattalin arzikin yankin, domin yana taimakawa wajen samar da wutar lantarki ga biranen Iraki, Siriya da Turkiyya. Gabaɗaya, fiye da kashi 70 cikin XNUMX na ruwan da ke cikin rafin Furat ana amfani da shi wajen samar da wutar lantarki, ban ruwa da samar da ruwan sha.

Barazana

Yawancin madatsun ruwa da na ban ruwa a bakin kogin, musamman ma na sama, sun haifar da sauye-sauye a magudanar ruwa, kuma ana fargabar cewa ruwan zai ragu tun kafin ya isa kasar Iraki. Ana ta cece-ku-ce kan hakkin ruwa tsakanin Turkiyya, Siriya da Iraki, kuma fari na kara kamari, musamman a sassan karshe na kogin. Bugu da kari, dazuzzuka da fadama da ke kusa da Basra an lalata su ne tun a shekarun 1990, lokacin Saddam Hussein mai mulki a lokacin. ya ba su damar zubar da ruwa don tilasta wa Larabawa da yawa barin yankin.

Gurbacewar kogi wata matsala ce. Sharar da ruwan sha daga noma, masana'antu, da gidaje yana shafar ingancin ruwa, kuma gishiri a cikin kogin Iraki yana ƙaruwa yayin da kogin ke gudana daga ƙasa.

Ina fatan da wannan bayanin zaku iya ƙarin koyo game da kogin Furat da halayensa.


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