Gidan Ganges

kogi ganges

Ayan kogunan mafiya mahimmanci a cikin yankin Asiya da duniya shine Kogin Ganges. Yana ɗaya daga cikin kogunan da ake ɗauka tsarkakke ga Hindu, tare da bakwai gaba ɗaya. Tana da fadada fiye da kilomita 2.500 kuma tana fara zirga-zirgar ta ne a Indiya ta kare a Bangaladash. Saboda wannan, an ba shi taken ranar duniya.

A cikin wannan labarin zamu gaya muku duk halaye, gurɓata, flora da fauna na Kogin Ganges.

Babban fasali

Gurɓatar ruwan kogin Ganges

Duk da mahimmancin tarihi, al'adu da rayuwar sa, kogin har yanzu yana da ƙazanta sosai saboda yana karɓar ɗimbin ɓarnar mutane da ƙarshe ke kwarara zuwa cikin teku. Wannan ya sanya ta zama ɗayan manyan hanyoyin gurɓataccen filastik a matakin teku.

A matsayin masana'antar yawon shakatawa wacce ke da mahimmanci ga tattalin arzikin Indiya, kogin Ganges na ɗaya daga cikin alamun baƙi. Keke ko sauran hanyoyin safara daga asalinsa zuwa yankin Delta na ɗaya daga cikin ayyukan da ake yawan yi wanda ke jan hankalin masu yawon bude ido.

Wannan kogin, da farko ana kiransa Rio Blanco, ya rasa launinsa saboda gurɓata kuma ya ba da koren ƙasa mai yadda yake yanzu. Hanyar ta ta kai kimanin kilomita 2.500, tare da matsakaita kwarara na mita 16.648 a kowace dakika, wanda zai iya bambanta gwargwadon lokutan. Yankin murabba'in kilomita 907.000.

Utarungiyoyin ruwa da yawa suna ciyar da gandun kogin, wanda ke da alaƙa da laushi, kuma an kiyasta zurfin tsakanin 16 zuwa 30 m. Kodayake ba shine kogi mafi tsayi a duniya ba, amma shine babban kogin a Indiya kuma kashi 80% na kogunan suna cikin Indiya. An kasa shi zuwa kanana da manyan makamai a sassa daban-daban na hanyar sa, yana samar da hadaddun hanyoyin sadarwa na tashoshi, wanda ke wakiltar jan hankali na gani, kuma yana bakin ta.

A yanzu haka najasa ne sosai, akwai kimanin kwayoyin cuta miliyan 1,5 da digo biyar a cikin miliyan 100, 500 daga cikinsu sun dace da lafiyar gidan wanka. Bugu da kari, wani bincike ya nuna cewa ta wanke kilogram miliyan 545 na kwandon roba a cikin teku. An yi amfani da Kogin Ganges don wadata mazauna da rayuwa mai arha da kuma ruwan yau da kullun ta hanyar magudanan ruwa da tsarin ban ruwa. Hakanan, akwai madatsun ruwa akan hanya don ɗaukar ruwan zuwa wasu yankuna.

Gurbatar Kogin Ganges da Hadarinsa

gawawwaki da aka jefa cikin kogin

Kodayake ana ɗaukar Kogin Ganges a matsayin wuri mai tsarki kuma yana da mahimmancin tarihi, tattalin arziki da yawon buɗe ido, Kogin Ganges ya ƙazantu sosai. Wadanda suke wanka cikin ruwanta da gangan ko bisa rashin sani sun jahilci wannan lamarin. Daga cikin gurɓatattun gurɓatattun gurɓatattun ruwa waɗanda zamu iya samu a cikin wannan kogin akwai waɗannan masu zuwa:

  • Rashin iya zubar da shara yadda ya kamata
  • Masana'antu da ke kusa da waɗanda ke gurɓata ɗayan manyan hanyoyin ruwan, gurɓatattun abubuwa suna gurɓata kogin duka.
  • Tsirrai masu amfani da lantarki suna zubar da shara kuma suna cutar da muhalli.
  • Bukukuwa da bukukuwa na addini suna zubar da gawarwakin da aka jefa cikin kogin kuma lalacewarsu ta ƙare da gurɓatar da ruwa.

A cikin 1980s, wani ya fara kamfen don tsabtace Ganges, amma saboda jahilci da kishin addini na mutane, hakan bai yi wani tasiri ba. A cikin 2014, taken ya sake inganta ta hanya mafi ƙarfi, amma bai ba da kyakkyawan sakamako ba.

Gurbacewar muhalli babbar matsala ce da ta shafi koguna, tare da jefa mutanen da ke amfani da shi da kuma ƙwayoyin da ke rayuwa a cikin ruwan su cikin haɗari. Koyaya, ba shine kawai abin da ke barazana ga Ganges ba, ƙarancin ruwa da haƙa ma'adinai ba bisa ƙa'ida ba suna yi masa barazana.

Wani lokaci, zurfin wannan kwarin ya kai mita 60, amma yanzu an rage shi zuwa mita 10. Don magance wannan matsalar, an gudanar da haƙawa da hakar ruwan karkashin ƙasa, amma har yanzu mummunan tasirin yana ci gaba.

Flora da fauna na kogin Ganges

ƙazantar da alfarma kogin

Saboda ci gaban aikin noma na kogin Ganges, kusan dukkanin ciyayi na asalin daji sun ɓace. Ana iya ganin cewa kawai Robusta Shorea ne ya iya yin tsayayya a ɓangaren sama da Bombax ceiba a cikin ɓangaren ƙananan. Presencearfin kasancewar humanan Adam da tasirin yanayi a wannan yanki yana hana ƙarin ciyayi ci gaba. Koyaya, a cikin Ganges delta, yana yiwuwa a sami madaidaicin mangrove a cikin Sundarbans.

Waɗannan abubuwan guda ɗaya, yanayin ɗan adam da yanayin yanayi, ban da gurɓatar ruwa, suna da mummunan tasiri ga kasancewar jinsunan dabbobi a cikin Ganges. Gangar Himalayas kawai da Ganges delta suna da wuraren da ba sa iya nutsuwa ba tare da wata fitina ta ɗan adam ba.

Bangaren saman filin yana dauke da karkandawan Indiya, giwayen Asiya, damisa na Bengal, zakunan Indiya, bishiyoyi, da bison A yanzu haka ana iya samun nau'ikan irin su kerkiyan Indiya, da jan ja da Bengal fox da diran zinare.

Daga cikin tsuntsayen akwai buzu-buzu, zakara, hankaka, daddawa da agwagwa wadanda ke yin hijira a lokacin sanyi. Dabbobin da ke cikin hatsari sun hada da irin ɓarna mai ƙahoni huɗu, da ƙazamar Indiya, da ɗan ƙaramar ƙazanta, da dabbar dabbar ruwa ta ruwa ta Kogin Ganges da ke Indiya.

Fauna na ƙananan yankin bai bambanta sosai daga dabbobin babban yankin ba, duk da cewa an kara nau'ikan irin su babbar kogon Indiya da santsin otter. Damisa ta Bengal tana da yanki mai kariya a cikin Ganges delta. An kiyasta cewa akwai kusan nau'ikan kifi 350 a cikin ruwansa.

Daga cikin dabbobi masu rarrafe, kadoji sune fitattu, kamar kada dausayi da kadoji; da kunkuru, kamar su kunkuru mai ratsi uku, baƙar fata baƙar fata ta Indiya, ƙaton kunkuru Cantor, turan kunkuru na Indiya, da dai sauransu.

Kamar yadda kake gani, ɗayan shahararrun koguna a duniya ƙazantacce ne kuma yana rasa yawancin halittu. Ko ta hanyar al'adu ko ci gaban tattalin arziki, ɗan adam yana tasiri mummunan yanayin halittu.

Ina fatan cewa tare da wannan bayanin zaku iya koyo game da Kogin Ganges da halayensa.


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