Jerikan tsauni

Himalayas

da jerin tsaunuka Su ne manyan faffadan tsaunukan da ke da alaƙa, waɗanda galibi suna zama iyakokin ƙasa tsakanin ƙasashe. Sun samo asali ne daga wuraren da ƙasa ke canzawa saboda motsi na farantiyoyin tectonic, wanda ke haifar da gurɓataccen gurɓataccen ruwa, ya tashi zuwa saman ƙasa kuma ya samo asali a cikin tsaunuka daban -daban. Sau da yawa tsaunuka suna da kololuwa. Vationaukaka haɓoɓinta na iya ɗaukar sifofi da girma dabam -dabam, kamar tsaunuka, jeri, tuddai, tsaunuka, ko tudu.

A cikin wannan labarin za mu gaya muku duk abin da kuke buƙatar sani game da jeri na tsaunuka, samuwar su, yanayi da nau'ikan su.

Tsarin dutsen jeri

jerin tsaunuka

Ana samun tsaunuka ta hanyar motsi farantiyoyin tectonic na ƙasa, waɗanda ke karo da juna, ninkawa, da nakasa har sai sun tashi sama da ɓawon ƙasa. Sediments da ke kan farfajiya suna shafar abubuwan mamaki na waje, kamar yawan zafin jiki, zaizayar ƙasa mai iska, yashewa ruwa, da dai sauransu.

Hakanan ana iya samun tsaunuka daga tsaunin ruwa. Wannan lamari ne na tsibirin Hawaii da tsibiran da ke kewaye da shi, waɗanda ke samar da tsarin tsaunuka a ƙasan teku, kuma kololuwar su ta bayyana sama da matakin teku don ƙirƙirar ƙungiyar tsibirai.

Babban dutse mafi girma a duniya da aka gano shine Mauna Kea a Hawaii. Kunshi a wani dutsen mai aman wuta wanda ya nutse cikin tekun Pacific. Akwai mita 10.203 daga kasa zuwa sama, amma tsayinsa ya kai mita 4.205. Mafi girman dutsen bisa ga matakin teku shine Dutsen Everest, mita 8850 sama da matakin teku.

Clima

Tsaunukan Andes

Mafi girman matsin yanayi, ƙarancin iskar oxygen yana samuwa.

Yanayin tsaunuka (wanda kuma ake kira yanayi mai tsayi) ya bambanta da wurin, yanayin ƙasa, da tsayin tsaunuka. Yanayin da ke kewaye yana shafar zafin dutsen daga gindin dutsen zuwa matsakaicin tsayi, mafi girman tsayin dutsen, mafi girman bambanci da yanayin yanki.

Daga mita 1.200 sama da matakin teku, yanayin zafi ya zama sanyi kuma ya zama mai ɗumi, kuma ruwan sama yana da yawa. Matsalar yanayi tana raguwa saboda karuwar tsawo, wanda ke nufin cewa karfin iska yana raguwa da raguwa, kuma yana da wahala kwayoyin su numfasa yayin tashi.

Misalai

Cantabrian

Tsibirin Sira wani yanki ne na ƙaramin dutsen da ke cikin babban tsaunin. Duwatsu halin da ba daidai ba ne ko kuma daban daban, amma na matsakaicin tsayi.

Misali shi ne Sierra Negra, Mexico, wacce ke tsakanin jihohin Veracruz da Puebla (wani ɓangare na Dutsen Dutsen Volcanic). Yana kunshe da dutsin dutsen da ba a taba gani ba kuma shine dutse na biyar mafi girma a kasar tare da tsayin mita 4.640. Babban wurin yawon bude ido ne don kekuna da hawan dutse.

Tsaunukan Andes

Andes shine dutse mafi girma na biyu bayan Himalayas. Tsarin dutse ne a Kudancin Amurka. Ita ce mafi tsawo a tsaunuka a duniya, tare da jimillar tsawon kilomita 8.500 da matsakaicin tsayi na mita 4.000, ita ce ta biyu mafi girman tsauni bayan Himalayas. Babban kololuwarsa shine Aconcagua, wanda yake mita 6,960 sama da matakin teku. Tana cikin yankin da ke da tsananin girgizar ƙasa da aikin dutsen mai fitad da wuta.

An kafa Andes a cikin Mesozoic Era. Ya wuce daga yankin Táchira na Venezuela na yanzu zuwa Tierra del Fuego a Argentina (ta hanyar Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia da Chile). Tafiyar tasa ta ci gaba zuwa kudu, ta kafa wani tsaunin ruwa mai suna "Arco de las Antillas del Sur" ko "Arco de Scotia", wasu kololuwansa sun bayyana a cikin teku don samar da kananan tsibirai.

Himalaya

Matsakaicin tsayin Himalayas shine 6.100 m. Tana cikin Asiya kuma shine mafi girman jerin tsaunuka a duniya. Daga cikin tsaunuka da yawa da suka tsara ta, Dutsen Everest ya yi fice, mafi girman matsayi a duniya a kan mita 8.850 sama da matakin teku, kuma saboda manyan ƙalubalen da ke cikinsa, ya zama alamar masu hawan dutse a duk faɗin duniya.

An kafa Himalayas kimanin shekaru miliyan 55 da suka gabata. Ta kai kilomita 2.300 daga arewacin Pakistan zuwa Arunachal Pradesh (Indiya), ta zagaya Tibet gaba dayan tafiya. Matsakaicin tsayinsa shine mita 6.100.

An haifi manyan tsarin ruwa uku na Asiya a cikin Himalayas: Indus, Ganges da Yangtze. Wadannan koguna kuma suna taimakawa daidaita yanayin duniya, musamman a tsakiyar yankin na Indiya. Himalayas gida ne ga dusar ƙanƙara da yawa kamar Siachen (mafi girma a duniya a waje da yankunan polar), Gangotri da Yamunotri.

Sauran tsaunukan tsauni

Za mu bayyana wasu daga cikin mahimman tsaunukan dutse a duniya:

  • Neovolánica Mountain Range (Mexico). Tsari ne na tsaunuka wanda aka samar ta hanyar tsaunukan wuta masu aiki da marasa aiki, daga Cabo Corrientes a gabar yamma zuwa Xalapa da Veracruz a gabar gabas, ta tsallaka tsakiyar Mexico. Manyan kololuwa kamar Orizaba (mita 5.610), Popocatépetl (mita 5.465), Istachivat (mita 5.230) da Colima (mita 4.100) sun yi fice. Ana amfani da yawancin kwaruruka da kwanoninsa don aikin gona, kuma ƙasa mai arzikin ƙarfe ta ƙunshi azurfa, gubar, zinc, jan ƙarfe, da kwano.
  • Alps (Turai). Shi ne mafi girman tsarin tsaunuka a Tsakiyar Turai, yana kafa arc mai tsawon kilomita 1.200 wanda ya tashi daga gabashin Faransa zuwa Switzerland, Italiya, Jamus da Austria. Yawancin kololuwarsa sun fi tsayin mita 3.500 kuma sun ƙunshi kankara sama da 1.000. A cikin tarihi, gidajen ibada na Kirista da yawa sun zauna a tsaunukan Alps don neman kwanciyar hankali.
  • Dutsen Rocky (Arewacin Amurka). Tsayin tsauni ne wanda ya faro daga Ginshiƙin Burtaniya a arewacin Alberta da Kanada zuwa kudancin New Mexico. Jimlar tsawonta shine kilomita 4.800 kuma kololuwar tana da tsayi kusan mita 4.000. Ya ƙunshi muhimman kankara kamar Dinwoody da Gooseneck, waɗanda ke raguwa da sauri da sauri saboda ɗumamar yanayi.
  • Pyrenees (Spain da Faransa). Tsarin tsauni ne wanda ya tashi daga gabas zuwa yamma tsakanin Spain da Faransa (daga Cape Cruz a Bahar Rum zuwa Dutsen Cantabrian) kuma ya kai tsawon kilomita 430. Babban kololuwar sa yana tsakiyar tsaunuka kuma tsayinsa ya fi mita 3.000, kamar Aneto (mita 3.404), Posets (mita 3.375), Monte Perdido (mita 3.355) da Pico Maldito (mita 3.350). A halin yanzu, tana da wasu ƙananan kankara da ke sama da mita 2700 sama da matakin teku.

Ina fatan cewa tare da wannan bayanin zaku iya ƙarin koyo game da manyan tsaunukan dutse a duniya da halayensu.


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