Heliocentrism

heliocentrism

A dā ana tunanin cewa duk duniyoyin suna zaga duniya. An san wannan ka'idar da ilimin ƙasa. Daga baya a karni na XNUMX ya zo Nicolaus Copernicus don sanarwa cewa rana ce a tsakiyar duniya. Yana da tsakiyar ɓangaren da sauran taurari da taurari suka yi tawaye. An san wannan ka'idar da heliocentrism.

A cikin wannan labarin zamu gaya muku duk abin da kuke buƙatar sani game da heliocentrism, halayensa da kuma manyan bambance-bambance da yanayin ƙasa.

Halaye na heliocentrism

tsarin hasken rana

A tsakiyar karni na XNUMX, ka'idar heliocentric ko heliocentrism da Nicolaus Copernicus ya gabatar ya dauka cewa rana ita ce cibiyar duniya, kuma duniyoyi da taurari suna zagaye da ita maimakon Duniya, kamar yadda ake tunani tun karni na XNUMX AD

Kafin a buga da kuma yada Copernicus's De Revolitionibus Orbium Coelestium (A kan Juyin Juya Halin Celebial Orbs, 1543), sanannen ka'idar da aka yarda da ita a Turai ita ce ka'idar masanin ilmin falaki na Hellenistic Claudius Ptolemy (karni na XNUMX AD). Ptolemy ya goyi bayan ka'idar Aristotle cewa duniya ita ce cibiyar duniya kuma ya kirkiro abin kwatance domin bayyana motsin rana, duniyoyi da taurari a duniya, wanda aka fallasa shi a cikin aikinsa na Almagest, wanda Larabawa da Nasara suka yada shi. An yada shi sosai har zuwa karni na XNUMX.

Marubuci na farko da ya gabatar da shawara cewa rana ita ce tsakiyar duniya shine Aristarchus na Samos (270 BC). Ya kasance waliyi a Laburaren Alexandria. Ya kuma kiyasta girman duniya da tazarar da ke tsakanin kasa da rana. .daga nesa. Amma wannan ra'ayin ba zai yi nasara akan wanda Aristotle ya inganta ba. An daidaita duniya, an kewaye ta da jerin duniyoyi wadanda aka saka rana, wata, taurari da sauran taurari. Wannan tsarin daga baya Claudius Ptolemy ne ya kammala shi (145 AD), wani waliyyi daga Library of Alexandria.

Amma dole ne mu jira har zuwa karni na XNUMX, da aikin firist na Poland, masanin lissafi kuma masanin falaki Nicholas Copernicus, kafin za a iya maye gurbin duniya da rana kuma ya zama cibiyar duniya. Ka'idar heliocentric tana sanya rana a tsakiyar duniya, kuma Duniya, sauran duniyoyi, da taurari suna zagaye da ita. Copernicus ya kuma ɗauka cewa ƙasa tana da motsi iri uku: motsi a kusa da rana, juyawa, da juyawa a kusa da matasanta. Copernicus ya kafa hujja da ka'idarsa akan hujja ta ka'ida da kuma akan jerin tebur da lissafi don hango yadda taurarin suke motsi.

A cikin littafin da aka ambata a baya, Copernicus ya bayyana mai zuwa game da heliocentrism:

"Duk bangarorin sun zagaye Rana, wanda yake a tsakiyarsu dukkansu […] duk wani motsi da ze iya faruwa a bangaren tsayayyen taurari ba lallai bane saboda wani motsi na karshen ba, a'a sai dai motsi na ƙasa ".

Biographyananan tarihin rayuwar Copernicus

ka'idar heliocentric

Nicolás Copernicus an haife shi ne a cikin dangi mai arziki wanda babban aikin su shine kasuwanci. Koyaya, maraya ne yana da shekaru 10. Gabanin kadaici, kawun nasa ya kula dashi. Tasirin kawunsa ya taimakawa Copernicus don samun babban ci gaba a al'adu kuma hakan ya ƙara motsa sha'awar mutane game da duniya.

A 1491 ya shiga Jami'ar Krakow a ƙarƙashin jagorancin kawunsa. An yi imanin cewa idan da ba a ba Copernicus marayu ba, to Copernicus ba zai zama komai ba kamar ɗan kasuwa kamar danginsa. Tuni a wani babban matsayi a jami'a, ya ci gaba da zuwa Bologna don kammala horo. Ya halarci kwasa-kwasai a cikin dokokin canon kuma ya sami jagoranci daga ɗan adam na Italiya. Duk ƙungiyoyin al'adu na lokacin suna da tasiri mai tasiri a wahayinsa don haɓaka ka'idar heliocentric wanda ya haifar da juyin juya halin.

Kawunsa ya mutu a 1512. Copernicus ya ci gaba da aiki a cikin tsarin cocin na canonical. Ya riga ya kasance a cikin 1507 lokacin da ya gabatar da bayanin farko na ka'idar heliocentric. Ba kamar abin da ake tsammani ba cewa Duniya ita ce cibiyar Halitta kuma dukkan duniyoyi, gami da Rana, sun zagaye ta, akasin haka ya bayyana. Amma aikin da a ƙarshe ya sanar da ka'idarsa, A kan Revolutions of the Celestial Orbs, an buga shi a cikin 1543, daidai shekarar da Copernicus ya mutu sakamakon bugun jini.

Heliocentrism da geocentrism

geocentrism da heliocentrism

A cikin wannan ka'idar, an lura da yadda rana ta zama cibiyar tsarin rana kuma duniya ta kewaya da shi. A kan wannan ka'idar heliocentric, duk waɗanda ke nazarin ilimin taurari sun fara samarwa da rarraba adadi da yawa da aka rubuta da hannu na shirin. Saboda wannan ka'idar, Nicholas Copernicus ana daukar shi masanin falaki ne mai ban mamaki. Duk binciken da kake yi akan sararin duniya dole ne ya kasance bisa ka'idar cewa duniyoyin suna zagaya rana.

An fadada aikin Copernicus don bayyanawa da kare ka'idar heliocentric dalla-dalla. Ba abin mamaki ba, don fallasa wata ka'ida da ke sauya duk imanin da ake da shi yanzu game da sararin samaniya, dole ne a kare shi da shaidar da za ta iya karyata ka'idar.

A cikin aikin, zamu iya ganin cewa sararin samaniya yana da tsararren tsari, wanda dukkan manyan motsi suna zagaye, saboda sune kawai motsin da suka dace da yanayin halittun samaniya. A cikin rubutun nasa, ana iya samun sabani da yawa tare da tunanin duniya kafin wannan. Duk da cewa duniya bata zama cibiyar kuma taurarin sun daina zagaye da ita, babu wata cibiya guda daya da dukkanin sammai suke rabawa a cikin tsarinta.

A gefe guda, a baya can mulkin ƙasa yana aiki. Misali ne wanda yake sanya duniya dangane da matsayin Duniya. Daga cikin bayanan asali na wannan ka'idar zamu sami:

  • Duniya ita ce cibiyar duniya. Sauran sauran duniyoyin da suke motsi akanta.
  • Duniya kafaffiyar duniya ce a sararin samaniya.
  • Yana da wani na musamman da kuma na musamman duniya idan muka kwatanta shi da sauran jikin sama.. Wannan saboda baya motsi kuma yana da halaye na musamman.

Ina fatan cewa tare da wannan bayanin zaku iya ƙarin koyo game da heliocentrism da halayensa.


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