Menene shi, yadda ake kirkireshi da halayen glacier

Glacier wanda dusar ƙanƙara ta kafa

A kafafen yada labarai muna yawan ganin cewa glaciers suna bacewa saboda canjin yanayi. Kankara wani babban taro ne na kankara mai matsi wanda yake samarwa a tsawon dubunnan shekaru. Abu ne da ya dauki tsawon lokaci yana ginawa kuma yana bacewa cikin shekaru gommai. Glaciers suna da rikitarwa masu tsauri don nazari da mahimmancin gaske ga duniyar tamu.

Shin kuna son sanin duk abin da ya danganci glaciers da mahimmancin da suke dashi?

Halaye na kankara

Tsarin glacier

Kamar yadda aka ambata a baya, dusar ƙanƙara tana tarawa shekara bayan shekara a cikin yadudduka. Wadannan yadudduka suna matsawa ta hanyar nauyin kansu da aikin nauyi. Kodayake suna ɗaya daga cikin manyan abubuwa a duniya, glaciers suna motsi. Suna iya gudana a hankali kamar koguna kuma suna wucewa tsakanin tsaunuka. A saboda wannan dalili, akwai wasu siffofin tsaunuka waɗanda aka kirkira daga motsi na kankara.

Tare da dumamar yanayi, wanzuwar kankara yana raguwa sosai. Su ne babban tushen ruwa mai kyau a doron kasa, tare da rafuka da tabkuna. Anyi amfani da kankara wani abu ne mai kyau na zamanin Ice na ƙarshe. Wannan saboda duk da cewa yanayin zafi ya tashi, amma ba su narke ba. Sun sami damar kula da kansu dubunnan shekaru kuma sun cika aikinsu na yau da kullun. Lokacin da Ice Age ya ƙare, yanayin zafi mafi girma a ƙananan yankuna ya sa shi narkewa. Bayan bacewarsu, sun bar fasalin ƙasa mai ban mamaki irin su kwari mai siffa ta U.

A yau zamu iya samun kankara a cikin tsaunukan duwatsu na duk nahiyoyi, ban da Ostiraliya. Hakanan zamu iya samun dusar ƙanƙara tsakanin latitude 35 ° arewa da 35 ° kudu. Kodayake ana iya ganin glaciers ne kawai a cikin Dutsen Rocky, a cikin Andes, a cikin Himalayas, a New Guinea, Mexico, Gabashin Afirka da Dutsen Zard Kuh (Iran).

Idan muka hada dukkan kankarar da ke duniya, sai su yi 10% na jimlar yankin. Bayan karatu da yawa, an kammala cewa kashi 99 cikin XNUMX na dukkan kankarar an yi su ne da yadudduka na kankara daga dukkan bangarorin biyu. Wannan saboda tururin ruwa da ke cikin yanayi yana tafiya cikin duniya. Musamman a Antarctica da Greenland zaka iya samun kankara daga ƙasan biyu.

Glacier kuzarin kawo cikas

Gungiyar glacier

Gabaɗaya, kankara suna samuwa a cikin tsaunukan tsaunuka da kuma cikin yankuna na polar. Don kankara ta samu, ana buƙatar yanayin zafi mai ƙaranci duk shekara zagaye da hazo a cikin yanayin dusar ƙanƙara. A lokutan zafi, tarin kankara ya fara narkewa yana tafiya a ƙetare kankarar zuwa ƙasan. Lokacin da ruwa mai ruwa ya taru a ƙasan glacier, sai ya bi ta gefensa zuwa ga gangaren. Wannan motsi na ruwa mai ruwa yana sa dukkan glacier din su motsa.

Ana kiran duwatsu masu kankara mai kankara mai tsayi da na sandunan kankara. Lokacin da suka saki ruwan narke daga yanayin zafi mai zafi a lokutan zafi, suna haifar da mahimmin ruwa na flora da fauna. Kari akan haka, ana samarda kananan garuruwa da yawa daga ruwan kankara. Ruwan da ke ƙunshe a cikin kankara kamar haka ne ana ɗaukar shi mafi girman ajiyar ruwa mai kyau a duniya. Ya ƙunshi har zuwa kashi uku cikin huɗu, fiye da koguna da tafkuna.

Horo

tabkuna masu kankara da narkewar su

Kankara zai fara samuwa lokacin da dusar ƙanƙara ta faɗi koyaushe kuma zata kasance cikin karko cikin shekara. Idan dusar ƙanƙan da ta faɗo ba ta narke a lokacin ɗumi ba, zai kasance cikin kwanciyar hankali har shekara guda. Lokacin da lokacin sanyi ya fara, dusar kankara ta gaba da ta faɗi sai a ɗora a saman, a ɗora nauyi a kan ta kuma samar da wani layin. Bayan shekaru masu zuwa, an samo ƙananan yatsun ƙanƙarar dusar ƙanƙara waɗanda ke samar da glacier.

Dusar ƙanƙara suna faɗuwa a cikin duwatsu kuma suna damfara matakan da suka gabata a ci gaba. Matsawa yana sake haifar dashi, yayin da iska tsakanin lu'ulu'u ke raguwa. Lu'ulu'un kankara na ci gaba da girma da girma. Wannan yana sa dusar ƙanƙara ta zama taƙama kuma ta ƙara yawanta. A wani lokaci inda yake daina taruwa, matsin nauyin ƙanƙan yana da cewa ya fara zamewa ƙasa. Wannan shine yadda ake kirkirar wani irin kogi wanda yake gudana ta kwari.

Gilashi yakan kai ma'auni idan adadin dusar kankara da aka adana iri ɗaya ne wanda yake narkewa. Ta wannan hanyar, zai iya kasancewa cikin kwanciyar hankali ɗaya na dogon lokaci. Idan aka bincika gaba daya, ana iya gani cewa sama da layin tsakiyar, zaku sami ƙari fiye da yadda kuka rasa kuma a ƙasa kuna rasa fiye da yadda kuka samu. Don kankara ta kasance cikin cikakkiyar daidaito fiye da shekaru 100 na iya wucewa.

Sassan kankara

Perito Moreno Glacier

Gilashi an yi shi da sassa daban-daban.

  • Yankin tarawa. Shine yanki mafi girma inda dusar ƙanƙara take sauka kuma ta taru.
  • Yankin zubar da ciki. A wannan yankin hanyoyin fushin da danshi suna gudana. A nan ne dusar kankara ta kai daidaito tsakanin ƙaruwa da asarar taro.
  • Tsaguwa. Su ne wuraren da kankara ke gudana da sauri.
  • Moraines. Waɗannan waƙoƙin duhu ne waɗanda aka kafa ta abubuwan ɗorawa waɗanda ke samarwa a gefuna da saman. Ana adana duwatsun da gilashin ya ja a cikin waɗannan wuraren.
  • Tasha. Yana da ƙarshen ƙarshen kankara inda tarin dusar ƙanƙara ya narke.

Iri na kankara

Bacewar kankarar saboda dumamar yanayi

Dogaro da wuri da yanayin samuwar, akwai nau'ikan glaciers daban-daban.

  • Gilashi mai tsayi Kamar yadda aka ambata a baya, su ne waɗanda aka kafa a cikin manyan duwatsu.
  • Gilashi circus. Su ne jinjirin wata inda ruwa ke taruwa.
  • Tekun Glacial. An ƙirƙira su ta hanyar ajiyar ruwa a cikin ɓacin rai na kwarin glacial.
  • Kwarin glacier. Tsarin halitta ne wanda ya samo asali daga ci gaba da zaizayarwar da harshen glacier yake yi. Wannan yana nufin, kowane yanki inda kankara take zamewa kuma tana samun siffofi.

Hakanan akwai wasu nau'ikan kankara kamar su Inlandsis, Drumlins, Lakes of Excavation, Foothill glacier da rataye glacier.

Glaciers fasali ne mai rikitarwa na yanayi wanda ke da tsayayyen mizani da muhimmin aiki ga rayayyun halittu.


Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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