glacialism

Pyrenees glaciers

El glacialism an san shi da jerin abubuwan da suka shafi glaciers. A nasu bangaren, dusar kankarar dusar ƙanƙara ce da ke taruwa a wurare masu tsaunuka da dusar ƙanƙara ta dindindin, wanda ɓangarensa yana zamewa a hankali kamar kogi. Glacierism ya zama mai mahimmanci a fuskar nazarin ilimin ƙasa na kwaruruka da tsaunuka.

Saboda wannan dalili, za mu sadaukar da wannan labarin don gaya muku duk abin da kuke buƙatar sani game da glacialism da glaciers.

Menene glacialism

glacierism da mahimmanci

Yana da kyau a faɗi cewa glacialism galibi ana amfani dashi azaman ma'anar glaciation. Duk waɗannan ra'ayoyin biyu na iya nufin ƙirƙirar glaciers da kutse kan kankara waɗanda suka faru a manyan yankuna da yawa a baya.

Musamman ma, glaciation, wani lokaci mai tsawo sosai a lokacin da zafin duniya ya ragu, yana haifar da glaciers da zanen kankara da ke shawagi a cikin tekun polar. A wannan yanayin, dole ne mu yi magana game da lokuta daban-daban na glacial, wanda na baya-bayan nan shine ake kira Würm, wanda. ya fara shekaru 110.000 da suka wuce kuma ya kai kimanin shekaru miliyan.

A matsayin gaskiya mai ban sha'awa, ya kamata mu nuna cewa, bisa ga hanyar da reshe na ilimin geography na jiki da aka sani da glaciology ya bayyana ma'anar, daya daga cikin manyan halayensa shine kasancewar zanen kankara a cikin duka hemispheres (kudu da Arewa). Idan haka ne, har yanzu muna cikin zamanin ƙanƙara a yau, kamar yadda Antarctica da Greenland duka suna da iyakoki.

Menene glaciers

glacialism

An yi imanin cewa dusar ƙanƙara ce ragowar zamanin ƙanƙara na ƙarshe. A wancan lokacin, matsanancin yanayin zafi ya tilastawa ƙanƙara kwarara zuwa ƙananan latitudes inda yanayin yanzu ke ɗumamawa. A yau muna iya samun nau'ikan glaciers iri-iri a cikin tsaunukan nahiyoyin duniya ban da Ostiraliya da wasu tsibiran teku. Tsakanin latitudes 35°N da 35°S, glaciers Ana iya ganin su ne kawai a tsaunin Rocky, Andes, Himalayas, New Guinea, Mexico, Gabashin Afirka, da Dutsen Zad Kuh. (Iran).

Gilashin kankara sun mamaye kusan kashi 10 na duk fadin duniya. Yawancin lokaci ana samun su a yankuna masu tsayi saboda yanayin muhalli yana da kyau a gare shi. Wato yanayin zafi yana da ƙasa kuma hazo yana da girma. Mun san wani nau'in hazo mai suna hazo, wanda ke faruwa idan iska ta tashi kuma a karshe ta taso. ruwan sama yana sauka a saman dutse. Idan zafin jiki ya kasance ƙasa da digiri 0, wannan hazo zai bayyana a matsayin dusar ƙanƙara kuma a ƙarshe zai daidaita har sai glacier ya fito.

Gilashin da ake samu a manyan tsaunuka da yankuna na iyakacin duniya suna da sunaye daban-daban. Wadanda suka bayyana a cikin manyan tsaunuka ana kiransu glaciers masu tsayi, yayin da glaciers polar ana kiran su kankara. A lokacin zafi, wasu suna sakin ruwan narke saboda narkewar ƙanƙara, suna haifar da mahimman jikunan ruwa ga flora da fauna. Har ila yau, yana da matukar amfani ga mutane kamar yadda ake samar da wannan ruwa ga mutane. Ita ce tafki mafi girma a duniya, wanda ke dauke da kashi uku cikin hudu na ruwa mai dadi.

Gilashi an yi shi da sassa daban-daban.

  • Yankin tarawa. Shine yanki mafi girma inda dusar ƙanƙara take sauka kuma ta taru.
  • Yankin zubar da ciki. A wannan yankin hanyoyin fushin da danshi suna gudana. A nan ne dusar kankara ta kai daidaito tsakanin ƙaruwa da asarar taro.
  • Tsaguwa. Su ne wuraren da kankara ke gudana da sauri.
  • Moraines. Waɗannan waƙoƙin duhu ne waɗanda aka kafa ta abubuwan ɗorawa waɗanda ke samarwa a gefuna da saman. Ana adana duwatsun da gilashin ya ja a cikin waɗannan wuraren.
  • Tasha. Yana da ƙarshen ƙarshen kankara inda tarin dusar ƙanƙara ya narke.

embossed siffar

moraines

Hakanan ana amfani da manufar glacialism sau da yawa don komawa ga tsarin ƙirar taimako daga faɗuwar yanayin zafi, wanda ke haifar da haɓakar glaciers. Ta wannan hanyar, idan aka yi rikodin ci gaba da raguwar zafin jiki a wani yanki, ana samun dusar ƙanƙara: glaciation yana faruwa.

Saboda haka, glaciation ne sakamakon yanayi. Misali, idan dusar ƙanƙara ta yi girma, yana girma ne saboda gudummawar ƙanƙara daga ruwan daskarewa, dusar ƙanƙara da ƙazamar ruwa. Glaciers, a bi da bi, suna rasa yawan jama'a ta hanyar rabuwa da ƙafewar dusar ƙanƙara. Bambanci tsakanin asara da samun taro ana kiransa ma'aunin glacial.

Glacierism a cikin Quaternary

Ko da yake muna iya samun shaidar glaciation a lokuta daban-daban na geological, abin da ake kira Quaternary glaciation shine wanda ya fi tayar da hankali ga masu bincike saboda ana iya lura da gadonsa a cikin yanayin da ake ciki yanzu. A kowane hali, yana da kyau a fayyace cewa an ba da wannan sunan ga Pleistocene kuma kada a dame shi da Holocene.

Glaciations na Pleistocene ya faru ne a sakamakon nau'ikan sanyi daban-daban ko glaciations na Quaternary, waɗanda sune masu zuwa: Gunz, Mindel, Riss da Würm. A kwanakin nan, al'ada ce a yarda da wani abu, wanda ake kira Donan, wanda zai kasance kafin sauran huɗun.

Ganin duk wannan, a cikin Iberian Peninsula, yankin glacial ya haɗa da adadi mai yawa na kololuwa. Shaida kawai da ta dace na aikin glacial na Quaternary wanda muka samu a cikin Iberian Cordillera shine massif da ake kira Moncayo: Castilla, wanda kuma aka sani da Peña Negra, Lobera da Moncayo, tare da haɓakar 2118 m da 2226 m bi da bi da 2316 m. A kudu maso gabas tana da ƙananan kololuwa kamar Saliyo del Taranzo da Saliyo del Tablado.

Dumamar yanayi

Wannan kusancin da ke tsakanin glaciers da yanayi ya sanya dusar ƙanƙara ta zama batun sha'awa ga masana kimiyya da masu kiyayewa. A wannan ma'ana, dumamar yanayi yana shafar glaciation kuma yana haɓaka ja da baya da bacewar glaciers. Wannan shine dalilin da ya sa yunƙurin rage jinkirin sauyin yanayi ke da mahimmanci ga duniya.

Kamar yadda kake gani, glacialism ya zama mahimmanci a cikin nazarin ilimin geology na kwari da tsaunuka. Ina fatan cewa tare da wannan bayanin za ku iya ƙarin koyo game da glacialism da halayensa.


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