Gamma haskoki

gamma rays

A fagen ilimin kimiyyar lissafi na nukiliya, ana nazarin nau'o'in radiation daban-daban da ke akwai. A wannan yanayin, za mu mai da hankali kan nazarin gamma rays. Yana da electromagnetic radiation wanda aka samar da shi ta hanyar iska mai lalacewa na atomic nuclei. Waɗannan raƙuman gamma suna da mafi yawan tasirin iska kuma suna cikin haɗari ga mutane, da kuma wasu ionon radiation.

Sabili da haka, zamu sadaukar da wannan labarin don gaya muku menene halaye, mahimmanci da amfani da hasken gamma.

Babban fasali

amfani da radiation

A takaice, zamu lissafa manyan halayen gamma rays:

  • Su barbashi ne wadanda basu da sauran hutu tunda suna tafiya da saurin haske.
  • Hakanan basu da cajin lantarki tunda ba wutar lantarki da maganadisun ke karkatar da su.
  • Suna da powerarfin ionizing sosai kodayake suna ratsa jiki sosai. Gamma rays of radon suna iya wucewa har zuwa 15 cm na ƙarfe.
  • Ruwa ne kamar haske amma sun fi ƙarfin radiyo yawa.
  • Wani sinadarin rediyo wanda yake cikin gland kuma yana gujewa gamma radiation yana ba da damar yin nazarin glandar ta hanyar samun ta a bakin teku.

Suna da iska mai karfin gaske kuma suna daya daga cikin hadari mai cutarwa ga dan adam, kamar dukkan wani abu mai tasiri. Hadarin ya ta'allaka ne da cewa su masu karfin ruwa ne wadanda zasu iya lalata kwayoyin da ba za a iya magance su ba. wanda ke samar da kwayoyi, masu haifar da maye gurbi har da mutuwa. A duniya zamu iya lura da asalin halittun gamma a lalacewar radionuclides da ma'amala da hasken rana da yanayi; raysan fitilu kaɗan ne ma ke samar da irin wannan hasken.

Gamma ray Properties

hasken gamma a sararin samaniya

A yadda aka saba, yawan wannan hasken ya fi 1020 Hz yawa, saboda haka yana da kuzari fiye da 100 keV da kuma nisan da bai fi 3 × 10 -13 m ba, wanda ya fi diamita zarra. Hakanan anyi nazarin ma'amala tsakanin gamma rayukan kuzari daga TeV zuwa PeV.

Hasken Gamma ya fi shiga jiki fiye da jujjuyawar da wasu siffofin lalacewar rediyo ke lalatawa, ko lalacewar alfa da lalacewar beta, saboda ƙarancin halin ma'amala da kwayoyin halitta. Gamma radiation an yi shi da photon. Wannan shine babban bambanci daga alpha radiation wanda ya kunshi helium nuclei da beta radiation wanda ya kunshi lantarki.

Fotos, kamar yadda ba su da kayan aiki tare, ba su da ionizing. A wadannan mitocin, bayanin abubuwan da suka shafi mu'amala tsakanin keken lantarki da kwayoyin halitta ba zai iya yin watsi da makanikai ba. Gamma rays ana rarrabe su da hasken rana ta asali. Ana samar da su ne ta hanyar nukiliya ko kuma canjin yanayi, a kowane hali, alhali kuma ana samarda rayukan ne ta hanyar canjin kuzari saboda wutan lantarki da yake shiga matakan makamashi na ciki kyauta daga matakan makamashin waje.

Tunda wasu sauye-sauyen lantarki zasu iya wuce makamashin wasu sauye-sauyen nukiliya, yawan ƙarfin X-ray mai ƙarfi zai iya zama mafi girma fiye da ƙarfin hasken gamma mai ƙarancin ƙarfi. Amma a zahiri, dukkansu taguwar lantarki ne, kamar igiyar rediyo da haske.

Abubuwan da aka yi godiya ga hasken gamma

lantarki bakan

Abubuwan da ake buƙata don kare hasken gamma ya fi kauri fiye da abin da ake buƙata don kare ƙwayoyin alpha da beta. Wadannan kayan za'a iya toshe su da takarda mai sauki (α) ko farantin karfe mai kaifi (β). Kayan aiki mai dauke da lambar atom da babban nauyi zai iya shafar hasken gamma. A zahiri, idan ana buƙatar 1 cm na gubar don ragewa tsananin hasken gamma da kashi 50%, wannan tasirin yana faruwa a 6 cm na siminti da 9 cm na ƙasa da aka matse.

Ana auna kayan garkuwar gaba daya gwargwadon kauri da ake buƙata don yanke ƙarfin radiation cikin rabi. A bayyane yake, mafi girman ƙarfin foton, mafi girman kaurin garkuwar da ake buƙata.

Sabili da haka, ana buƙatar fuska mai kauri don kare ɗan adam, saboda gamma rays da X-rays na iya haifar da ƙonawa, ciwon daji, da canjin yanayin halitta. Misali, a cikin tsire-tsire na makamashin nukiliya, ana amfani da shi don kare ƙarfe da ciminti a cikin ƙarancin pellets, yayin da ruwa zai iya hana radiation a yayin adana sandar mai ko kuma jigilar jigilar mahaukata.

Yana amfani

Yin amfani da iska mai yaduwa hanya ce ta jiki wacce ake amfani da ita don cimma haifuwar abubuwa likita da tsafta, gurɓatar da abinci, albarkatun ƙasa da kayayyakin masana'antu, da aikace-aikacen su a wasu fannoni, Zamu gani nan gaba.

Wannan tsari ya haɗa da fallasa ƙarshen kunshin ko babban samfura ko abu don ionizing makamashi. Ana yin wannan a cikin ɗaki na musamman da ake kira ɗakin saka iska don kowane yanayi na musamman kuma a cikin takamaiman lokaci. Wadannan raƙuman ruwa suna ratsa samfuran da aka fallasa su gaba ɗaya, gami da samfuran hada abubuwa da yawa.

Amfani da Cobalt 60 don maganin cututtukan tumo hanya ce wacce a halin yanzu ta yadu sosai a ƙasata da kuma duniya saboda ingancinta da kuma lafiyarta. Ana kiran sa maganin ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwaƙwalwa ko maganin kuzari da ya haɗa da fallasar da ƙwayar cuta ga rayukan gamma.

A saboda wannan, ana amfani da abin da ake kira na maganin cobalt, wanda aka tanada shi da mai sulke wanda ke dauke da cobalt 60, kuma an sanya masa wata na’urar da ke daidai sarrafa tasirin bayyanar da ake buƙata a cikin kowane takamaiman lamarin don magance cutar yadda ya kamata.

Aikace-aikacen kasuwanci na farko na makamashin ionization ya samo asali ne zuwa farkon shekarun 1960. Yau, akwai kusan shuke-shuke 160 na aikin saka iska a duniya, an rarraba shi a cikin fiye da ƙasashe 30, suna ba da sabis iri-iri masu yawa don ƙarin masana'antu.

Kamar yadda kake gani, kodayake suna da haɗari, mutum yana iya yin amfani da hasken gamma a yankuna da yawa kamar yadda magani yake jawowa. Ina fatan cewa tare da wannan bayanin zaku iya ƙarin koyo game da hasken gamma da halayensu.


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