Volcanoes

dutsen wuta

Maganar kanta dutsen mai fitad da wuta, ya fito ne daga Roman Vulcano, sannan Vulcanus yace. Haƙiƙa mutum ne daga tatsuniyar Hellenic wanda Romawa suka karɓa. Lava yana da dangantaka da baƙin ƙarfe mai zafi wanda ya tashi daga ayyukan da Hephaestus, Allah na wuta da ƙarfe a cikin tarihin Girka. Abin da magabata ba za su taɓa fahimta ba shi ne dalilin da ya sa suke wanzuwa, daga ina lava ta fito, kuma me zai sa su zama marasa nutsuwa, cewa ba a duniyarmu kawai ake rayuwa ba.

Me yasa dutsen tsauni ya wanzu?

matakan ciki na duniyan duniya magma

Tsarin duniya daban-daban

Volcanoes (daidai da girgizar ƙasa) suna da alaƙa da tsarin ciki na duniyarmu. Hasasa tana da cibiya ta tsakiya wanda ke cikin ƙaƙƙarfan yanayi bisa ga ma'aunin girgizar ƙasa tare da radius na kilomita 1220. Launin na tsakiya na tsakiya wani yanki ne mai tsaka-tsaka wanda ya kai kusan 3400km a radius. Daga can ne alkyabbar take, inda ake samun lawa. Ana iya rarrabe bangarori biyu, karamin alkyabba, wacce ke tafiya daga zurfin 700km zuwa 2885km, da kuma na sama, wanda ya tashi daga 700km zuwa ɓawon burodi, tare da matsakaicin kauri 50km

Kodayake yana iya zama kamar ba a bayyane ba, haushi na duniyarmu tana dauke da manyan faranti tectonic ko lithospheric kira. Wannan yana nufin cewa ɓawon burodi bai zama ɗaya ba. Faranti suna shawagi a kan kango, daga inda lava ta fito, kuma ana kiran wannan abin da ake kira, nahiyar.

faranti daban-daban na tectonic

Sabbin faranti da suke wanzu, da kuma matsin lambar matsin lambar da suke samu (Source: Wikipedia)

Irin wannan gantali, ya ƙunshi ɓarkewa, kuma galibi ana lura dasu a matakin teku. Manyan jiga-jigan aman wuta suna ratsa ƙasan tekuna, sune tsaka-tsakin teku. Wadannan manyan tsaunukan tsaunuka bi da bi an kirkiresu ta manyan duwatsu masu kama da wuta. Tare da waɗannan ramuka, tsawon kilomita dubu da yawa, abu yana ci gaba da fitowa daga alkyabbar. Wannan kayan, yana zamewa a cikin bangarori biyu masu tsayi, kuma yana ci gaba da samar da dunkulen duniya. Akwai wuraren da gibin da ke tsakanin faranti a cikin sassan yankin, ba a cikin tekuna ba, kuma a can ne muke da asalin aman wuta. A cikin yankunan da suka fi kunkuntar duniya, inda farantin tectonic suke haduwa.

Ta yaya dutsen tsawa yake samo asali?

Theyallen, bi da bi, ana lalata shi a kai a kai a cikin wuraren da ake kira subduction zones. Kamar yadda muka yi bayani, faranti na tectonic ba a “manne” a zahiri. Wannan yana nufin cewa akwai wuraren da wasu faranti suke nitsewa a ƙasa wasu kuma suna haɗuwa da alkyabbar. Wadannan yankunnan hadewar faranti suna da matsi mai yawa, wannan yasa suke da wani babban tashin hankali na girgizar ƙasa, wanda ya haifar da girgizar ƙasa da dutsen mai fitad da wuta.

San Andreas Laifi, California

San Andreas Laifi, California, Amurka

Ridungiyoyin jirgin karkashin ruwa sune wuraren da basu da tabbas. Musamman, wasu daga cikin waɗannan aman wuta masu ƙarfi da ake samu a ƙasan tekuna, na iya hawa sama da matakin teku. Suna kafa tsibirai na babban aiki na aman wuta, misali misali lamarin Iceland ne. Yankunan da basu da kwanciyar hankali sune wuraren da farantin daya ke hawa kan wani, ko ma lokacin da suke goge a kaikaice tsakanin su, kamar sanannen laifin San Andrés a Amurka. Wannan sananne ne sosai tare da ido mara kyau, saboda zurfin katsewar abubuwan da yake gabatarwa a cikin ƙasa. Saboda gagarumin aikin girgizar kasa, masana kimiyya sun hango wata babbar girgizar kasa a wannan yanki, wanda akewa lakabi Babba.

Sassan dutsen mai fitad da wuta

Sassan dutsen mai fitad da wuta

Bambancin sassan dutsen mai fitad da wuta

  • Maticungiyar mai suna: Ya dace da yankin ciki na ɓawon burodi na ƙasa, inda ake samun magma. Wannan shine inda magma ke haɓaka cikin matsin lamba kafin ya tashi zuwa saman. Yawanci yana tsakanin zurfin kilomita 1 da 10.
  • Murhu: Wurin da magma da ke tashi a cikin fashewar, lawa, ke fitowa. Bayan fashewar, an toshe shi da duwatsu masu sanyi, ma'ana, tare da ƙarfafa magma da ke wurin.
  • Mazugar wuta Tsarin murƙushewar mazugi ne wanda ke tasowa a rami. An ƙirƙira shi ta hanyar tarin kayan da aka samar da kuma fitarwa ta hanyar fashewa.
  • Secondary volcanic mazugi: Kirkirar wata karamar hayakin haya ta inda magma take fitowa.
  • Kusada: Shine ramin da magma ke fitowa zuwa saman duniya. Dogaro da dutsen mai fitad da wuta, girmansa da siffofinsa sun sha bamban. Za'a iya fasalta shi kamar mazurai ko mazugi, kuma a auna shi daga froman mitoci zuwa kilomita.
  • Gidaje: Shine tara lava mai ɗanɗano wanda aka samo daga magma wanda, idan aka kwantar dashi kan bakin mai fashewa kansa, zai iya toshe shi.
  • Gishiri: Suna kama da ƙananan duwatsu masu aman wuta, amma an yi su ne da ruwan zãfi. Mafi yawan lokuta a yankuna kamar Iceland.
  • Sanduna: Cold fumaroles wanda ke ba da carbon dioxide.
  • Fumaroles: Fitar gas daga lava a cikin ramuka.
  • Alamar: Ya yi daidai da raunin rauni na ɓawon ƙasa inda magma ta sami damar hawa daga ɗakin don isa saman.
  • Solfataras: Iskar hayaƙin ruwa tare da hydrogen sulfide.
  • Nau'in Volkano

Yanayin zafin jiki, nau'in abu, danko da abubuwan da aka narkar da su a cikin magma, dukansu suna haifar da nau'in fashewa, dutsen mai fitad da wuta. Tare da adadin kayan masarufi waɗanda suke tare da shi, zamu iya bambanta waɗannan nau'ikan:

Strombolian Volcano

Bayyanar dutsen mai fitad da wuta

Paricutín dutsen mai fitad da wuta, Mexico

Ya samo asali ne lokacin da aka sami sauyawa daga kayan da yake fashewa. Suna samar da madaidaiciyar madaidaiciyar mazugi na ruwa mai laushi da kayan aiki masu ƙarfi. Lava ruwa ne, yana fitar da iskar gas mai yawa da ƙarfi, tare da tsinkayen bama-bamai, lapilli da slags. Saboda ana fitar da iskar gas cikin sauki, ba ya samar da toka ko fesawa. Yaushe lava ta malalo kewaye da gefen rami, ya gangara zuwa gangara da kwazazzabai, ba tare da mamaye tsawo ba, wanda ke faruwa a cikin dutsen mai aman wuta irin na Hawaiian.

Dutsen Hawaiian

Dutsen dutsen Hawaiian

Kilauea, shahararren dutsen Amurka kamar dutsen mai fitad da wuta

Kamar strombolian, lava yana da ruwa sosai. Ba shi da fitowar gas mai saurin fashewa. A wannan halin, idan lawa ta malalo gefan bakin ramin, a sauƙaƙe yana saukowa daga gangaren dutsen mai fitad da wuta. mamaye manyan yankuna da tafiya mai nisa. Irin wannan dutsen mai fitad da wuta yana da tudu mai laushi, kuma idan iska ta tafi da wasu lawa da iska sai su samarda zaren lu'ulu'u.

Labari mai dangantaka:
Duk abin da kuke buƙatar sani game da dutsen mai fitowar Kilauea

Dutsen dutsen Vulcanian

Irin dutsen mai fitad da wuta irin na Vulcan

Dutsen dutsen Vulcanian

Sunan da ya fito daga dutsen mai fitad da wuta na Vulcanus, tare da maɗaukakiyar maɗaukakiyar cones, yana da halin fitar da gas mai yawa. Lawa ɗin da aka saki ba shi da ruwa sosai kuma yana haɓaka cikin sauri. A cikin irin wannan fashewar, fashewar suna da karfi sosai kuma suna dagula lawa. Yana samar da toka mai yawa, wanda idan aka jefa shi sama yana tare da wasu kayan abubuwa masu rarrabuwa. Magma da aka saki zuwa waje, lawa, yana karfafawa da sauri, amma iskar gas din da aka saki tana karyewa kuma ta fiskanta ta. Wannan ya sa ya zama mai matukar wahala da rashin daidaituwa.

Peleano dutsen mai fitad da wuta

fada dutsen tsawan dutse mont pelé

Mont Pelée, tsibirin Martinique, Faransa

A cikin irin wannan dutsen mai fitad da wuta, lawa daga fashewarsa yana da ƙarfi kuma yana ƙarfafawa cikin sauri. Ya zo ne don rufe bakin rami gaba ɗaya, yana yin nau'in python ko allura. Wannan yana haifar da babban matsin gas rashin samun damar tserewa, yana haifar da a babbar fashewa daga hawan dutse ko yage saman tsaunin.

Misali na dutsen mai fitad da wuta mai suna Peleano a cikin babban dutsen da ya auku a kansa 8 ga Mayu, 1902 a Dutsen Pelée. Extraordinaryarfin ƙarfin gas ɗin da aka tara a babban zazzabi, gauraye da toka, ya lalata bangon dutsen mai fitad da wuta lokacin da ya ba da irin wannan turawa. Ya shafi garin St. Pierre, a tsibirin Martinique na Faransa, tare da ƙimar da keɓaɓɓu na 29.933 wadanda aka kashe saboda gajimaren gajimare wanda ya samo asali.

Phreatomagmatic Volcano

Tsibirin Surtsey Iceland

Tsibirin Surtsey, Iceland. Tashi daga fashewar cutar ciwon mara. Hoto daga Erling Ólafsson

Ana samun duwatsun aman wuta na Phreatomagmatic a cikin ruwa mara zurfi, wanda Hydungiyar Hydrographic ta Duniya ta kira ruwa mai ƙanƙan. Suna gabatar da tabki a cikin kwazazzabansu kuma wani lokacin suna yin tsafi, tsibirin murjani na teku. Ga ƙarfin dutsen mai fitad da wuta yana daɗa fadada tururin ruwa wanda ya yi sauri da sauri, yin Rikici mai rikitarwa. Ba kasafai suke gabatar da hayakin lawa ba ko fitowar dutse.

Dutsen dutsen Pliniano

Teide Tsibirin Canary mai aman wuta

Teide, Tsibirin Canary, Spain

A cikin wannan nau'in dutsen mai fitad da wuta, wanda ya bambanta da fitowar dutsen dutsen na yau da kullun, matsin gas yayi karfi sosai, samar da mummunan tashin hankali. Hakanan yana haifar da gajimare mai zafi wanda, idan aka sanyaya shi, yana haifar da yanayin ruwan toka. Zasu iya binne birane.

Bugu da kari, ana kuma nuna shi da sauyawar fashewar abubuwa masu fashewa daga pyroclastic tare da fashewar kwararar lava. Wannan yana haifar da zolaye cikin yadudduka, wanda ke samar da cewa waɗannan dutsen mai fitad da wuta suna da girman girma. Misali mai kyau na wannan, muna da shi a cikin Teide.

Yanzu tunda mun ga menene dutsen mai fitad da wuta, ya kamata a san cewa ba wai kawai sun wanzu a duniyarmu ba. Wannan lamarin yana daya daga cikin wadanda duniyar tamu take da ita da sauran duniyoyin da suke cikin tsarin rana da kuma duk fadin duniya. Duk abin da magma ta ƙunsa a cikin wannan rana ɗaya da matsin lamba ya fashe. Duk inda muka duba, zamu ga kamanceceniya, da duniyarmu, da ma kanmu. Kuma shi ne cewa "dukkanmu muna da dutsen mai fitad da wuta a ciki: muna kiyaye abubuwa da yawa cewa, wata rana, za mu kwashe su gaba ɗaya", Benjamin Griss.

Shin kun san menene Volcanos mai aiki me ke faruwa?


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