Dutsen dutsen dutse

babban dutsen dutse mai haske

Daya daga cikin sanannun dutsen tsauni a duniya shine dutsen mai dutsen dutse. Tana cikin Kwarin Kasa na Yellowstone a Amurka kuma tana cikin kusurwar arewa maso yamma na Wyoming. Dutsen tsauni ne wanda ya samu ci gaba sau uku a cikin shekaru miliyan 2.1 da suka gabata kuma hakan ya samar da tsaunin da ya kai kimanin kilomita 55 × 72 30.

A cikin wannan labarin zamu gaya muku duk abin da kuke buƙatar sani game da halaye, yanayin ƙasa da fashewar dutsen dutsen Yellowstone.

Babban fasali

lawa a guje

Akwai daidaitattun ka'idoji don asalin wurin hutun Yellowstone. Wasu masanan ilimin kasa sunyi da'awar cewa an kirkireshi ne ta hanyar cudanya da yanayin gida a cikin lithosphere da kuma sadarwar cikin babbar rigar. Wasu kuma suna nuna cewa ya samo asali ne daga cikin zurfin mayafin (gashin gashin kai). Wannan takaddama ta tabbata zuwa bayyanar wuraren zafi a cikin tarihin ilimin ƙasa. Bugu da ƙari kuma, kwalliyar kwalliyar Kolombiya ta bayyana a lokaci guda, wanda ya haifar da jita-jita game da asalinsa.

Ramin yana kan wuri mai zafi Hotspot na Yellowstone na yanzu yana ƙasan Plateau Yellowstone. Kodayake yana bayyana ya ƙetare filin daga gabas zuwa gabas, amma wurin da yake da zafi ya fi zurfin zurfin ƙasa kuma ya kasance tsaye.

A cikin shekaru miliyan 18 da suka gabata, wurin hutawa na Yellowstone ya haifar da ci gaba da tashin hankali da ambaliyar ruwa. Akalla 12 daga waɗannan fitowar sun yi girma da yawa don haka an sanya su a matsayin manyan fashewar abubuwa. Wasu lokuta waɗancan abubuwan fashewar suna zubar da magma da sauri har ƙasa mai ƙasa ta faɗo cikin ɗakin magma mai ban tsoro, ta zama abin da ake kira dutsen mai fitad da wuta. Bacin ran kasa. Yankunan dake aman wuta ta hanyar abubuwan fashewa na iya zama manya da zurfi kamar manya da matsakaitan tafkuna, kuma suna iya sa manyan wurare na tsaunuka su ɓace.

Tsoffin waƙoƙi a cikin ramin sun rataye ɓangarorin biyu na iyakar Nevada-Oregon kusa da McDermit. Ofaya daga cikin mashigan, ramin Bruno-Jabici a kudancin Idaho, an kafa shi shekaru miliyan 10-12 da suka gabata, kuma samuwar sa ya bar zurfin toka mai zurfin 30 cm a arewa maso gabashin Nebraska.

Fitar dutsen aman wuta na Yellowstone

dutsen mai dutsen dutse

A cikin shekaru miliyan 17 da suka gabata, dutsen dutsen Yellowstone ya samar da fashewar kogo 142 ko sama da haka. Gandun dajin Yellowstone yana zaune a saman koguna masu aman wuta guda hudu (US NPS).

Ana kiran filayen volcanic da ke haifar da manyan fashe-fashe da ba a saba gani ba supervolcanoes. Ta haka aka ayyana, Yellowstone supervolcano Yankin volcanic ne wanda ya samar da ƙarin abubuwa uku na ƙarshe na zoben Yellowstone. Hakanan ya haifar da ƙaramar fashewar da ta kafa West Thumb Lake 174.000 shekaru da suka gabata.

Ruwa na baya-bayan nan na kwanan nan ya faru kimanin shekaru 70.000 da suka gabata kuma mummunan tashin hankali ya faru a West Thumb Lake yamma da Yellowstone kimanin shekaru 150.000 da suka gabata. Akwai kuma fashewar tururi. Shekaru 13.800 da suka gabata, fashewar wani tururi ya zama rami mai tsawon kilomita 5 a cikin Mary Bay a gefen Tekun Yellowstone a tsakiyar kogon.

A yau, aikin aman wuta yana faruwa ne ta hanyar iska mai yawa da ke warwatse ko'ina cikin yankin, gami da sanannen gishirin Old Faithful, da tsarin fadada kasa wanda ke nuni da ci gaba da fadada dakin magma. Saboda aman wuta da daddare da kuma ci gaba da aiki a karkashin kasa, wani babban maguma yana karkashin dutsen.

Magma a cikin wannan ɗakin ya ƙunshi gas kuma kawai na iya narkewa a ƙarƙashin matsi mai girma na magma. Idan aka sake matsin lamba har zuwa wani lokaci saboda wasu canje-canjen yanayin kasa, wani bangare na narkar da iskar gas din yana haifar, yana haifar da magma fadada. Idan wannan fadadawa yana haifar da sakin matsi mafi girma, zai iya haifar da dauki mara tsari kuma zai iya haifar da fashewar iskar gas.

Yellowstone dutsen mai fitad da wuta mai hadari

magma dakin

Tsakanin 2004 da 2008, an sami ƙaruwa a saman dutsen Yellowstone da kusan 7,6 cm a kowace shekara, fiye da sau uku fiye da abin da aka lura tun lokacin da waɗannan ma'aunai suka fara a 1923. Masana kimiyya daga Geoungiyar Nazarin Geoasa ta Amurka. US, da Jami'ar Utah, da National Park Service da kuma Yellowstone Volcano Observatory sun ce:Ba mu ga wata shaidar da ke nuna cewa wani ɓarkewar fashewa zai faru a cikin Yellowstone a nan gaba ba. Abubuwan da ke faruwa a lokutan dawowa ba na yau da kullun ba ne ko kuma ake iya faɗi ”

Dangane da binciken da National Geographic Society ya yi, Yellowstone mai zuwa babbar fashewa mai yuwuwa na gaba zata iya faruwa a ɗayan ɓangarori uku masu laifi iri ɗaya da ke bi ta wurin shakatawa a yankin arewa / arewa maso yamma. Biyu daga cikin wadannan yankuna sun samar da kwararar ruwa mai yawa yayin aikin karshe na supervolcano, shekaru 174.000-70.000 da suka wuce, kuma yanki na uku shine yankin da yake da yawan rawar jiki a cikin 'yan shekarun nan.

Earthquasashen girgizar ƙasa

Dangane da yanayin dutsen da yanayin yanayin yankin, ramin Yellowstone yana hango faɗakarwar 1,000 zuwa 2,000 a kowace shekara. Lokaci-lokaci, ana yin adadi mai yawa na girgiza a cikin gajeren lokaci.

A cikin bincikensu, masu binciken sun yi amfani da hanyar sadarwa ta seismographs da ke kusa da wurin shakatawa don taswirar dakin magma. Wayoyi suna tafiya a hankali lokacin da suka ratsa cikin kayan zafi, waɗanda aka narkar da su, don haka kuna iya auna abubuwa a ƙasan. Kamar yadda ƙungiyar masana kimiyya suka lura, wannan kogon magma yana da girma: yana da zurfin tsakanin kilomita 2 da kilomita 15, kusan kilomita 90 tsayi da faɗi kilomita 30.

Ya fadada arewa maso gabas na wurin shakatawa fiye da sauran karatun da aka nuna kuma ya ƙunshi cakuda daskararru da lawa. A iliminmu, ba a taɓa tsara taswirar wannan sikelin ba. Tare da waɗannan binciken, masu bincike zasu iya tantance barazanar da ƙattai ke yi. Yellowstone babban tushen zafi ya kasance tsakanin kilomita 405 da kusan kilomita 2.900 a ƙasa. Zai iya zuwa daga asalin ruwa. Masana kimiyya sun riga sun san cewa ɗakin magma yana sama da tafki kuma yana jan magma daga gare shi. An samo shi kilomita 5 zuwa 14 ƙasa da farfajiyar kuma shine makashin geysers, wuraren waha na ruwa da sauran shahararrun abubuwan jan hankali.

Ina fatan cewa tare da wannan bayanin zaku iya koyo game da dutsen dutsen Yellowstone da halayensa.


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