Dan tudu a geothermal

yadudduka na Duniya

Yana da wuya ayi tunanin cewa zaka iya lissafin yanayin zafin cikin cikin duniya. Duniyar mu tana da zurfin kilomita 6.000 har sai da ta kai ga gaci. Duk da wannan, ɗan adam ya kai zurfin kilomita 12 ne kawai. Koyaya, muna da fasahohi daban-daban don iya lissafin yanayin zafin cikin zurfin. Canjin yanayin zafin jiki dangane da zurfin ɓawon burodi na duniya an san shi da sunan dan tudu a geothermal.

A cikin wannan labarin zamu gaya muku game da duk halaye da mahimmancin ɗan tudu na geothermal.

Mene ne ɗan tudu na geothermal

dan tudu a cikin zurfin

A ɗan tudu a tudu ba komai bane illa bambancin yanayin zafin jiki azaman aiki na zurfin da muka tsinci kanmu. Za'a iya auna zafin jiki a cikin kilomita na farko na dunƙulen ƙasa kuma suna ƙaruwa cikin zurfin biyo bayan matsakaicin matsin lamba 3 na kowane zurfin mita 100. Alaƙar da ke tsakanin bambancin yanayin zafin jiki da zurfin ana kiranta ɗan tudu na geothermal. Yanayi na ɗumbin duniyar yana da nasaba da matakai daban-daban na jiki da sunadarai da ke faruwa a ciki. Hakanan akwai wasu abubuwan da zasu shiga wannan lissafin don iya lissafin yanayin zafin.

Babban fasali

dan tudu a geothermal

Bari mu ga menene dalilai daban-daban waɗanda ke tasiri da darajar ɗan tudu a ƙarƙashin ƙasa:

  • Yankin yanki: yankin da muke daga ko'ina cikin duniya yana da mahimmanci don samun damar sanin bambancin yanayin zafi. Yanayin kasa da tsari a ma'aunin yanki yana daya daga cikin abubuwan da ke daidaita yanayin yanayin zafi. Watau, a wuraren da akwai aman wuta mai karfi a yau, yankunan da lithosphere ta ragu sosai, ɗan tudu a cikin ƙasa ya fi na sauran wuraren da babu aikin tsauni ko kuma inda lithosphere ke da kauri daban.
  • Abubuwan gida: a matakin ƙaramar gida muna ganin bambance-bambance tsakanin yanayin yanayin duwatsu. Akwai duwatsu waɗanda suke da haɓakar haɓakar zafin jiki mafi girma wanda ke haifar da sauƙin kai tsaye da bambancin tsaye na ɗan tudu. Abinda yafi yanke hukuncin darajar wannan dan tudu a duniya shine yaduwar ruwan karkashin kasa. Kuma abin shine ruwa yana da babban karfin da zai iya sake rarraba zafi. Wannan shine yadda muke samun yankuna masu cajin ruwa na aquifer wadanda gradient gradient suke raguwa saboda faduwar ruwan sanyi.

A gefe guda, muna da wasu wuraren sauke abubuwa inda akasin haka ke faruwa. Yunƙurin ruwan zafi a zurfin yana haifar da ɗan tudu a cikin tudu. Saboda haka, darajar da dan tudu zai dauka ya bambanta dangane da yanayin kasa da tsarinta, bambance-bambance tsakanin kayan fasaha na duwatsu da zirga-zirgar ruwan ƙasa. Duk waɗannan abubuwan sune suke sanya wannan ƙaruwa cikin zafin jiki ya bambanta a zurfin.

Yawo da yaduwar zafin duniya

ciki na duniya

Mun san cewa zafin duniyar da muke fitarwa ana iya lissafa ta ta hanyar saurin zafin rana. Wannan shi ne adadin zafin da duniyar ta rasa ta kowane yanki da lokaci. An lasafta saurin zafin saman a matsayin samfurin mai ɗanɗano da yanayin haɓakar yanayin matsakaici. Wato, darajar kwandon geothermal ta ninka ta ikon gudanar da zafi a cikin yanayin da muke. Wannan shine yadda muka san adadin asarar zafin da ke akwai a wani yanki.

Yanayin zafi shine sauƙin abu don samun damar watsa zafi. Matsakaicin darajar saurin zafin rana a nahiyar shine 60 mW / m2, wanda zai iya sauka zuwa kimar 30 mW / m2 a tsofaffin yankunan nahiyoyi - inda lithosphere ta fi kauri - kuma ya wuce kimar 120 mW / m2 a kananan yankuna, inda lithosphere din ba shi da kauri. Abu ne mai sauƙi a bincika ma'adinai da rijiyoyin burtsatse, yanayin zafi na kayan cikin ƙasa yana ƙaruwa da zurfi.

Akwai rijiyoyin mai da yawa waɗanda aka kai darajar darajoji 100 a kusan zurfin mita 4.000. A gefe guda kuma, a wuraren da ke da aman wuta, ana kawo abubuwa daban-daban zuwa saman duniya a yanayin zafin da ke zuwa daga wurare masu zurfin gaske. Wani ɓangare na ɓawon burodi na Duniya ya wuce 'yan dozin santimita kauri. An bayyana shi da gaskiyar cewa yanayin zafin nasa ya dogara da yanayin zafin yanayin da yake yanzu kuma yana nuna nau'ikan yanayi na yanayi da yanayi. Tasirin zafin jiki na waje yana shafar ƙasa kaɗan yayin da muke zurfafawa.

Idan muka kai wani matakin zurfin, yanayin zafi yana daidaita daidai da matsakaicin yanayin zafin wurin. Ana kiran wannan yanki tsakaitaccen matakin zafin jiki ozone.

Zurfi da dan tudu

Zurfin da aka sami matakin tsaka tsaki inda yanayin zafi yake koyaushe yakan bambanta tsakanin mita 2 da 40. Ya kasance mafi girma mafi tsananin yanayin da yake mamaye saman duniya. Neutralasan tsaka tsaki shine inda yanayin zafi ya fara ƙaruwa da zurfin. Wannan karin bai zama daidai ba a duk yankuna. A na farkon, ya fi bangon ƙasa, matsakaicin darajar ɗan tudu a gefermal kusan mita 33. Wannan yana nufin cewa lallai ne ku shiga zurfin mita 33 don samun ƙimar digiri 1 a cikin zafin jiki. Saboda haka, An kafa shi tsakanin matsakaitan dan tudu a duniya yana da digiri 3 kowane mita 100.

Matsakaicin matsakaita ana zartar da shi ne kawai zuwa yankunan ƙarshen ƙirar, tunda ana iya kiyaye ta ko'ina cikin radius. A zurfin zurfin yanayin zafi ya fi girma tunda kayan sun narke a zurfin kilomita kilometersan kilomita kaɗan.

A yau mun san cewa yawancin masana ilimin geophysic sun kimanta cewa yanayin zafi a cikin sassan duniya ba ya wuce dubun dubbai. A mafi yawan, wasu suna kimanta kimar kimar digiri 5.000. Duk wannan yana haifar da ɗan tudu wanda yake raguwa tare da zurfin da zarar an sami takamaiman adadin ƙasa.

Ina fatan cewa tare da wannan bayanin zaku iya koyo game da abin da gradient gradient yake da halayensa.


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