Cenozoic Era: Duk abin da kuke buƙatar sani

dabbobin cenozoic

A yau za mu yi tafiya zuwa abubuwan da suka gabata. Amma ba a cikin shekarun da suka gabata ba ko centuriesan ƙarnin da suka gabata. Zamu yi tafiyar shekaru miliyan 66 zuwa yanzu. Kuma hakane da Cenozoic zamani ne wanda ya kasance na uku a cikin manyan tarihi a tarihin Duniya. Ya kasance sanannen tazara wanda ƙasashen duniya suka sami tsarin da suke a yau. Muna tuna hakan ka'idar gantali na nahiyar kuma plate tectonics yayi bayanin cewa nahiyoyin suna motsi.

Shin kuna son sanin duk halaye da al'amuran da suka faru, na ilimin ƙasa da na halitta, waɗanda suka faru a cikin Cenozoic? A cikin wannan sakon zamu gaya muku duka 🙂

Menene Cenozoic?

Lokacin ilimin kasa

Geology, flora da fauna na duniya bai daidaita ba akan lokaci. Tsawon shekaru suna canzawa saboda ƙetarewar nau'ikan halittu da canje-canje a cikin yanayin muhalli. Duwatsu, a gefe guda, suna tafiya tare da nahiyoyi, ƙirƙirawa da lalatawa tare da faranti na tectonic.

Kalmar Cenozoic ta fito ne daga kalmar Kainozoic. Masanin ilmin kimiyar kasa na Ingila ya yi amfani da shi John phillips don kiran manyan rarrabuwa na Phanerozoic Aeon.

Zamanin Cenozoic ya kasance ɗayan mahimmancin gaske, tunda yana wakiltar lokacin da dinosaur ɗin suka ɓace. Wannan shine farkon farkon juyin juya halin dabbobi. Bugu da kari, nahiyoyin sun samu daidaiton da ake kiyaye su a yau da kuma fure da fauna sun samo asali. Sabbin yanayin muhalli da duniyarmu ta gabatar, ya tilasta canza duk yanayin da aka sani har yanzu.

Dabbobin da ke cikin Cenozoic

Dabbobin da ke cikin Cenozoic

A lokacin Cenozoic, Tekun Atlantika ya fadada ya zama tsaunin tsaunin Atlantika. Wasu ƙasashe kamar Indiya suna da manyan matsalolin rikice-rikice wanda ya haifar da hakan zuwa samuwar Himalayas. A gefe guda, farantin Afirka ya koma cikin hanyar Turai don ƙirƙirar tsaunukan Switzerland. Aƙarshe, a Arewacin Amurka Dutsen Rocky ya sami tsari iri ɗaya.

Duwatsu waɗanda suka kasance a wannan zamanin an haɓaka su a kan nahiyoyi da ƙananan filayen, suna samun ƙwarewar mafi girma. Wannan ya faru ne saboda yawan matsin lamba da aka samu ta hanyar zurfin binnewa, gano sinadarai, da yanayin zafi mai yawa. A gefe guda, duwatsun da ke cike da abubuwa ne suka mamaye wannan zamanin. Fiye da rabin duka man duniya ana ciro shi daga tarin dutsen da ke cikin ƙasa.

Halaye na zamanin Cenozoic

Inarshen dinosaur

Tunda wannan zamanin ya shiga tare da ƙarancin dinosaur, akwai canje-canje da yawa waɗanda suka faru a matakin duniya. Na farko shine juyin halitta da fadada dabbobi masu shayarwa. Ta hanyar rashin dinosaur a matsayin gasa, zasu iya bunkasa da yawa. Canjin halittar ya taimaka ya karu da yaduwar dabbobi masu shayarwa zuwa muhalli daban-daban.

Gaba ɗaya, akwai fadada fauna a ko'ina cikin Duniya. Farantin tectonic suna cikin motsi koyaushe kuma a wannan zamanin ne Tekun Atlantika ya faɗaɗa. Abubuwan da suka fi dacewa da mahimmanci a yau sune:

  • Manyan jeri-jigan duwatsu na duk duniya an ƙirƙira su.
  • Na farko hominids ya bayyana.
  • Developedananan iyakokin sun ɓullo.
  • Jinsin mutane sun bayyana.

Waɗanne lokuta ne wannan zamanin ke rufewa?

Zamanin kankara

Kamar yadda aka bayyana a lokacin ilimin kasa Kowane zamani yana da lokaci da yawa. Cenozoic ya kasu kashi biyu wanda ake kira Tertiary da Quaternary. Wadannan an raba su zuwa zamani daban-daban.

Lokacin karatun

Tarayyar nahiyoyi da samuwar jerin tsaunuka na yanzu

Tarayyar nahiyoyi da samuwar jerin tsaunuka na yanzu

Wannan shine farkon lokacin da siffofin rayuwa a farfajiya da cikin teku suke kama da na yau. Tunda dinosaur suka ɓace, dabbobi masu shayarwa da tsuntsaye suke mulkin duniya. Wannan saboda basu da kowace irin gasa. Tuni a wannan lokacin herbivores, dabbobi masu haske, marsupials, kwari da ma whales sun wanzu.

Kamar yadda muka ambata a baya, wannan lokacin an raba shi zuwa lokaci daban-daban waɗanda suke:

  • Paleocene. Yana da halin sanyaya na taurari tare da sakamakon samuwar iyakokin polar. Babban yanki Pangea ya gama rarraba kuma nahiyoyi sun ɗauki kamannin yau. Yawancin tsuntsaye da yawa sun fito tare da ci gaban angiosperms. Hakanan, Greenland ya ƙaura daga Arewacin Amurka.
  • Eocene. A wannan lokacin manyan tsaunukan tsaunukan da muka ambata a sama sun taso. Dabbobi masu shayarwa sun bunkasa sosai har suka zama dabbobi mafiya mahimmanci. Dawakan farko sun bayyana kuma an haifi birrai. Wasu dabbobi masu shayarwa kamar whales sun dace da yanayin ruwan.
  • Oligocene. Wannan lokacin ne lokacin da farantin tectonic ke ci gaba da karo don samar da Bahar Rum. Jerin tsaunuka kamar na Himalayas da Alps da aka kafa.
  • Miocene. Duk an kammala tsaunukan tsaunuka kuma an kafa kankara ta Antarctic. Wannan yasa yanayin duniya gaba daya yayi sanyi. Yawancin ciyayi da yawa sun samo asali a duk duniya kuma fauna sun samo asali.
  • Pliocene. A wannan lokacin, dabbobi masu shayarwa sun kai kololuwarsu kuma sun bazu. Yanayin ya yi sanyi kuma ya bushe kuma hominids na farko sun bayyana. Dabbobi kamar Australopithecines da kuma Homo habilis  da kuma Homo erectus, magabatan Homo sapiens.

Lokacin Quaternary

Yanayin Cenozoic

Wannan shine zamani mafi zamani da muka sani. Ya kasu kashi biyu:

  • Pleistocene. An kuma san shi da lokacin ƙanƙara tun lokacin da ya wuce kusan kashi ɗaya cikin huɗu na duka faɗin Duniya. An rufe wuraren da kankara bata taɓa wanzuwa ba. A ƙarshen wannan lokacin dabbobi masu shayarwa da yawa sun mutu.
  • Holocene. Lokaci ne wanda kankara ke ɓacewa yana haifar da saman ƙasa da faɗaɗa shimfidar ƙasa. Yanayin yana da dumi tare da yalwar flora da fauna. Mutane suna haɓaka kuma sun fara farauta da noma.

Sauyin yanayi

Tsuntsaye masu mulkin duniya

Cenozoic ana ɗaukarsa a matsayin lokaci wanda duniyar ta sanyaya. Ya dade sosai. Bayan Ostiraliya ta rabu da Antarctica gaba ɗaya a lokacin Oligocene, yanayin ya yi sanyi sosai saboda bayyanar Yankin Yankin Antarctic Yanzu wanda ya haifar da babban sanyaya na Tekun Antarctic.

A lokacin Miocene akwai dumi saboda sakin carbon dioxide. Bayan yanayi ya yi sanyi, shekarun farko na kankara sun fara.

Da wannan bayanin zaka kara sanin tarihin duniyarmu 🙂


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  1.   Jorge m

    Kawai layin layi cewa Ina son shafinku. Na koyi abubuwa da yawa waɗanda ban sani ba ...