Biomass, duk abin da kuke buƙatar sani game da wannan makamashi mai sabuntawa

Wutar lantarki tare da kwayoyin halitta

Abu na farko da ya kamata ka sani shi ne cewa biomass ba komai bane kwayoyin halitta na shuka ko asalin dabbobi, Sharar kwayoyin da sharar sun hada anan, wanda shine abin dogaro da za a yi amfani da shi don samar da makamashi.

Dalili kuwa shine saboda cewa tsire-tsire suna canza haske mai haskaka Rana zuwa makamashi mai guba ta hanyar photosynthesis kuma wani ɓangare na wannan makamashin an adana shi a cikin sifar ƙwayoyin halitta, wanda zamu iya amfani da shi.

A halin yanzu, an yarda da ma'anar nan ta biomass mai zuwa:

"Biomass ana daukarta a matsayin wani rukuni na kayan makamashi masu sabuntawa da danyen kayan da suka samo asali daga kwayoyin halittar da aka samar dasu ta hanyoyin ilimin halittu".

Dalilin haka ne batun ma'anar burbushin halittu da kayan adon da aka samo daga garesu kamar su robobi da mafi yawan kayan roba ba su dace da ma'anar biomass ba.

Kodayake waɗannan makamashin da kayan da aka samu suna da asalin asalin halitta, samuwar su ya faru ne a lokutan baya.

Biomass sabili da haka makamashi ne mai sabuntawa na asalin rana ta hanyar hotunan tsire-tsire.

yadda ake samar da makamashi na photosynthesis

Bugu da kari, a cewar Umarnin 2003/30 / EC biomass shine:

"Raba kashi daga kayayyakin sharar da ragowar daga noma, gandun daji da masana'antun da ke da nasaba, da kuma kashin da ke lalata masana'antu da na birni."

Daga abin da muka fahimta shi ne cewa gabaɗaya, kowane ma'anar biomass ya ƙunshi kalmomi 2 galibi; sabuntawa da kwayoyin.

Biomass a matsayin tushen makamashi

Tun zamanin da, mutum yayi amfani da biomass a matsayin tushen kuzari don gudanar da ayyukan sa na yau da kullun.

Tun lokacin da aka fara amfani da makamashin mai, biomass an manta shi a ƙaramin jirgin sama, inda gudummawar da take bayarwa wajen samar da makamashi na farko bashi da wani amfani.

Yau, godiya ga abubuwa daban-daban, biomass ya sake farfaɗowa azaman tushen makamashi.

Abubuwan da suke da alhakin rayar da biomass azaman tushen makamashi sune:

  • Tashin farashin mai.
  • Productionara yawan kayan noma.
  • Bukatar neman wasu amfani ga noman.
  • Canjin yanayi.
  • Yiwuwar amfani da ilimin kimiyya da fasaha don inganta tsarin samar da makamashi.
  • Kyakkyawan tsarin tattalin arziki don ci gaban shuke-shuke da ke amfani da biomass a matsayin mai, saboda albarkatun samarwar da aka samu ta hanyar samar da shuke-shuke da wannan tushe.
  • Matsalar wucin gadi don haɓaka wasu nau'ikan ayyukan, barin biomass a matsayin madaidaicin madadin don sa saka hannun jari na tattalin arziƙi.

Iri biomass

Kwayar halittar da aka tsara don samar da makamashi ana samun ta ne daga ragowar amfani da gandun daji, daga masana'antun canjin itace na farko da na biyu, daga wani bangare na daskararrun birane, daga sharar dabbobi. kayayyakin gona da gandun daji, albarkatun makamashi, waɗanda aka ƙayyade kawai don cin gajiyar su don samun biomass.

Gabaɗaya, biomass ana samun sa ne daga kowane samfurin kayan lambu mai saukin amfani da kuzari, kodayake waɗannan sune manyan.

Biomass aka rarraba ta nau'in

Biomass na halitta

Biomass na halitta shine wanda aka samar dashi yanayin halittu. Amfani da wannan albarkatu mai ƙarfi bai dace da kare mahalli ba, koda kuwa yana ɗaya daga cikin mahimman hanyoyin samar da makamashi a ƙasashe masu tasowa.

An kirkiro wannan kwayar halittar halittar ne ba tare da wani sa hannun mutum ba don canza shi ko inganta shi.

Yana da asali game da sharan gona:

  • Abubuwan da ke tsabtace gandun daji da tsire-tsire sun kasance
  • Itace itace da rassa
  • Ifunƙun duwatsu
  • Leafai

Ragowar biomass

Ragowar biomass shine menene haifar a cikin ayyukan ɗan adam masu amfani da kwayoyin halitta. Kawar da ita a lokuta da yawa matsala ce. Wannan nau'in biomass yana da alaƙa da fa'idodi yayin amfani da shi:

  • Rage gurbatawa da haɗarin wuta.
  • Rage sararin shara.
  • Kudin samarwa na iya zama ƙasa kaɗan.
  • Kudin sufuri na iya zama ƙasa.
  • Guji fitowar CO2.
  • Createirƙiri ayyuka.
  • Taimakawa ga ci gaban karkara.

Sauran biomass kuma an raba shi zuwa jerin nau'ikan da aka ambata a ƙasa.

Rarar noma

Ragowar rarar noma waɗanda ba a amfani da su don amfanin ɗan adam ana ɗaukar su dace da amfani a matsayin biomass don dalilan makamashi.

Wannan amfani da kayayyakin amfanin gona da aka yi amfani da su a cikin jerin abincin ɗan adam ya haifar da mummunan suna mara kyau na amfani da biomass don dalilai na makamashi, saboda ana zargin wannan amfani da ƙarin farashin wasu kayayyakin amfanin gona waɗanda sune tushen abinci a cikin ƙasashe uku da yawa da ƙasashe masu tasowa.

Wadannan rarar amfanin gonar ana iya amfani dasu azaman mai a cikin tsire-tsire masu samar da wutar lantarki kuma a canza su zuwa makamashin mai.

Cropsarfin makamashi

Abubuwan makamashi da aka ambata a sama sune takamaiman albarkatu waɗanda aka keɓance kawai don samar da makamashi.

Ba kamar amfanin gona na gargajiya ba, manyan halayensu sune high biomass yawan aiki da kuma high rusticity, bayyana a cikin halaye irin su juriya ga fari, cuta, kuzari, haɓakar farko, ƙarfin haɓaka da daidaitawa zuwa ƙasashe masu iyaka.

Abubuwan da ake amfani da su a cikin makamashi na iya haɗawa da amfanin gona na gargajiya (hatsi, rake, mai mai) da waɗanda ba na al'ada ba (cynara, pataca, sorghum mai daɗi) waɗanda ake batun karatu da yawa don sanin bukatun noman su.

Tsarin canji na Biomass

Kamar yadda aka gani a sama, yawancin nau'ikan kayan aiki wadanda aka hada su cikin tsarin kwayar halitta suna ba da damar kafa wani iri-iri na yiwuwar canjin tsari wannan kwayar halittar a cikin kuzari.

Tsarin canji na Biomass

Saboda wannan dalili, biomass zai iya canzawa zuwa nau'ikan makamashi daban-daban ta hanyar amfani da matakai daban-daban na jujjuya, wadannan nau'ikan makamashin sune:

Heat da tururi

Zai yuwu a samar da zafi da tururi ta hanyar ƙona biomass ko biogas.

Heat na iya zama babban samfuri don dumama da aikace-aikacen girki, ko kuma zai iya zama samfarin samar da wutar lantarki a cikin tsire-tsire masu haɓaka wutar lantarki da tururi.

Man gas

Za'a iya amfani da biogas din da aka samar a cikin narkewar iska ko kuma sarrafa gas a cikin injunan konewa na ciki don samar da wutar lantarki, don dumama da kuma daidaitawa a cikin gida, kasuwanci da hukumomi da kuma abubuwan hawa da aka gyara.

Biofuels

Aikin samar da albarkatun mai kamar ethanol da biodiesel (zaka iya duban labarin Yadda ake yin biosiesel na gida) yana da damar maye gurbin adadin mai da yawa a cikin aikace-aikacen sufuri da yawa.

Yawan amfani da ethanol a cikin Brazil ya nuna, fiye da shekaru 20, cewa Masarufin mai amfani da fasaha mai yuwuwa ne ta hanyar sikeli.

A Amurka da Turai abubuwan da suke samarwa na karuwa kuma ana tallata su gauraye da dangin mai.

Misali, cakuda da ake kira E20, ya kunshi 20% ethanol da 80% na mai, ana amfani da shi a yawancin injunan wuta.

A halin yanzu, wannan nau'in mai yana karɓar wasu nau'ikan tallafi ko taimakon ƙasa, amma, a nan gaba, tare da karuwar albarkatun makamashi da tattalin arziki na sikelin, ragin farashin zai iya sa samar da su ya zama gasa.

Electricity

Ana iya sayar da wutar lantarki da aka samu daga biomass azaman "koren makamashi", tunda ba ya ba da gudummawa ga tasirin greenhouse saboda ba shi da hayaƙin carbon dioxide (CO2).

Wannan nau'in makamashi na iya ba da sabbin zaɓuɓɓuka zuwa kasuwa, tunda tsarin tsadar sa zai ba masu amfani damar tallafawa manyan matakan saka hannun jari a cikin ingantattun fasahohi, wanda zai haɓaka masana'antar samar da makamashi.

Co-tsara (zafi da wutar lantarki)

Co-tsara yana nufin samar da tururi da wutar lantarki lokaci guda hakan ana iya amfani dashi ga yawancin masana'antun masana'antu waɗanda ke buƙatar duka nau'ikan makamashi.

A Amurka ta Tsakiya, alal misali, wannan aikin ya zama ruwan dare gama gari a masana'antar sikari, inda zai yiwu a ci gajiyar ɓarnatarwar aikin, galibi bagasse.

Saboda babban amincin bagasse da ake da shi, a al'adance, ana aiwatar da haɗin gwiwa yadda ya kamata. Koyaya, a cikin recentan shekarun nan an sami sauyi don inganta aikin don samar da ƙarin wutar lantarki da siyar da rarar zuwa layin wutar lantarki.

Matakan da za a iya bi don aiwatar da wannan canjin za a iya raba su na jiki, na jiki-na kemikal, thermochemical da biological.

Busonewa a tsire-tsire masu tsire-tsire

A sauƙaƙe, konewa abu ne mai saurin saurin sinadarai, ta wanne ne hada oxygen daga iska (menene oxygenizer) tare da abubuwa daban-daban na shakar mai ta haka ne asalin sakin zafi.

Saboda wannan dalili, don wannan aikin sinadaran ya faru waɗannan halayen 4 dole ne su faru:

  1. Dole ne ya zama akwai wadataccen mai, watau biomass.
  2. Dole ne ya samar da isasshen adadin iska mai ƙonewa, wanda ke ƙunshe da iskar oxygen da ake buƙata don shayarwa ko amsa tare da mai.
  3. Yawan zafin jiki dole ne ya zama ya isa sosai don tasirin ya faru kuma a dore shi. Idan yawan zafin jiki bai wuce wani ƙimar ba, wanda ake kira filashi, mai sanya wuta da mai ba su amsawa.
  4. Dole ne a sami mai konewa, yawanci wutar da ta riga ta kasance. Wannan yana nufin cewa sauran abubuwa suna shiga cikin ƙonewar tsarin ƙonewa, har ma da wasu makamashi.

Tsarin biomass

Kwayar halittar, kafin ya ci gaba zuwa konewarsa a cikin tukunyar jirgi, dole ne a sanya shi cikin tsarin shiri na baya, wanda sauƙaƙe aikin aiwatarwa tsakanin mai da oxidizer.

Wannan tsari yana sauƙaƙa ƙonewa tunda yana daidaita daidaiton ma'aunin yanayi da kuma yanayin zafi.

Saitin matakai ko jiyya na baya suna da manyan manufofi uku:

  1. Amincewa shigar da biomass a cikin tukunyar jirgi, ta yadda mai tukunyar jirgi yana karɓar isasshen ƙarfi na makamashi iri ɗaya.
  2. Ragewa kayan kwalliyar ta don ƙara takamaiman yanayin farfajiyarta.
    A hakikanin gaskiya, karami girman hatsi, ya fi girma yankin saboda mai da mai sanya kuzari na iya amsawa, don haka hanzarta aikin da rage adadin kwayar halittar da ba ta amsawa (ba a ƙone shi ba)
  3. Rage zafi cewa yana ƙunshe, yana hana wani ɓangare na zafin da aka saki yayin konewa daga amfani dashi azaman zafin fidda ruwa, yana rage zafin hayakin.

Duk wannan dole ne a yi shi tare da mafi ƙarancin yiwuwar amfani da makamashi, tunda duk kuzarin da aka cinye a cikin waɗannan hanyoyin, sai dai idan ya kasance makamashin saura ko ƙarfin da za a iya amfani da shi ba tare da tsada ba, na nufin raguwar kuzarin kuzarin da shuka ke samarwa.

Wurin tukunyar jirgi

Tabbas tukunyar jirgi ita ce babban kayan aikin tsire-tsire mai zafi na biomass.

A cikin sa, ake aiwatar da tsarin canza makamashin sinadaran da ke cikin kwayar halitta zuwa makamashin zafin jiki, wanda daga baya zai rikide zuwa karfin inji.

Tukunyar, ban da kasancewa babban kayan aiki, ita ce kuma babbar damuwar masu fasahar da ke kula da aikin wata shuka.

Yi makirci tare da tukunyar jirgi mai ƙone bututun mai

Babu shakka kayan aikin da zasu iya haifar da matsaloli mafi haɗari, suna haifar da mafi yawan lokacin aiki, kuma suna buƙatar mafi tsayayyen kulawa.

Dalilin da yasa tukunyar jirgi kayan aiki masu matsala sune kamar haka:

  • Fasaha ce mai tasowa, ba ta wadatu sosai ba. Ganawa da babbar kwarewar da aka tara a cikin wasu hanyoyin konewa wanda ke sakin adadin makamashin zafin jiki mai yawa daga shakar mai mai ƙwari, kamar su tsire-tsire na gawayi, konewar biomass yana fuskantar jerin sabbin matsalolin da har yanzu ba a magance su ba. an warware su gaba daya gamsarwa.
  • Babban sinadarin potassium da sinadarin chlorine da ke cikin kwayar halittar yana haifar da sikelin da lalata ta a bangarori daban-daban na tukunyar jirgi.
  • Konewa ba shi da cikakkiyar kwanciyar hankali, yana gabatar da mahimman canje-canje a cikin matsi da zafin jiki.
  • Akwai matsala mai girma cikin cikakken sarrafa kansa sarrafa sarrafa tukunyar jirgi, saboda bambancin yanayin da za'a iya gabatar da biomass a ƙofar.
  • Fa'idar tsire-tsire, har ma da kuɗin da ake biya don samar da wutar lantarki wanda dokokin Spain suka bayar, yana da matsi sosai, yana tilasta tanadi kan dukkan abubuwan haɗin, gami da tukunyar jirgi. Sabili da haka, ba a amfani da mafi kyawun kayan ko mafi kyawun fasahohi, saboda ƙarin kuɗin da suke jawowa.

Daya kawai Zaɓin zaɓi na tukunyar jirgi mai kyau na iya haifar da nasara cikin nasarar samar da wutar lantarki ta biomassA lokaci guda, zaɓin da bai dace ba zai ba shi wahala matuka ga saka hannun jari a cikin wannan nau'in shuka, wanda ke wakiltar tsakanin Yuro miliyan 1 zuwa 3 a kan MW na wutar lantarki da aka girka, don samun fa'ida.

Biomass tsire-tsire masu zafi

A biomass thermoelectric shuka ne a injin samar da wuta Wannan yana amfani da makamashin sunadarai da ke cikin wani adadi na biomass kuma ana sake shi azaman makamashi na thermal ta hanyar tsarin ƙonewa.

Da farko dai, dole ne injinan dawo da kuzari na biomass ya kasance yana da tsarin fara samar da kwayar halittar, manyan dalilansu sune rage danshi da yake dauke dashi, don daidaita girmansa da kuma daidaitonsa, don daidaita yanayin. mashigar cikin tukunyar jirgi da cin nasara mafi inganci na tsarin konewa.

Da zarar an saki makamashin zafin wuta a cikin wutar da ta dace, iskar gas din da aka saki yayin konewa, wanda ta ƙunshi CO2 da H2O galibi tare da wasu abubuwa masu ƙarfi da gas, suna musayar zafinsu a cikin tukunyar jirgi wanda ruwa ke zagayawa, kuma wanda aka canza shi zuwa al'ada tururi a wani matsi da zazzabi.

Gas na konewa na gas yana ratsa tukunyar jirgi, yana ba da kuzarinsa ga ruwa / tururi a matakai daban-daban: bangon ruwa, superheater, katako mai tururi, tattalin arziƙi da preheaters na iska.

Tururin da ke ƙarƙashin matsin da aka ƙirƙira a cikin tukunyar jirgi ana ɗaukar shi zuwa turbine, inda yake faɗaɗawa, yana samar da sabon canji na makamashi wanda ƙarfin makamashin da ke cikin tururin da ke cikin matsi ya juye na farko a cikin kuzarin kuzari, daga baya kuma cikin kuzarin inji mai juyawa.

Tsarin doka na tsire-tsire masu zafi a cikin Spain

Generationarfin wutar lantarki a Spain ya dace masu hannun jari, kodayake aiki ne mai ƙarfi wanda jihar ke sarrafawa.

Dokoki da ƙa'idodi daban-daban suna tsara wannan aikin, kuma yana da mahimmanci ga kowane mai fasaha wanda ke aiki a tsire-tsire masu tsire-tsire su san wannan tsarin doka.

Ayyuka daban-daban da suka shafi makamashin lantarki suna ƙarƙashin takamaiman jihar, saboda mahimmancin waɗannan ayyukan.

A al'adance, an yi amfani da halayyar Ma'aikatan Gwamnati, inda Jiha ke da alhakin ƙarni, jigilar kayayyaki, rarrabawa da kuma kasuwancin makamashin lantarki.

A yau ya zama ba Jama'a ba ne, tunda waɗannan ayyukan suna da cikakken 'yanci.

Ana ci gaba da sa baki ga jama'a a halin yanzu saboda ayyuka ne da ke ƙarƙashin ƙa'idodi masu ƙarfi. Zai zama mai ban sha'awa don yin nazari a farkon yadda yadda ƙa'idodi daban-daban waɗanda zasu iya shafar ayyukan da suka shafi ƙarni, jigilar kaya da siyar da makamashin lantarki.

Biomass don amfanin gida

Kodayake na fi mai da hankali kan neman makamashi don wutar lantarki, amma an ambaci amfani da biomass don samar da zafi don amfani da dumama kuma mafi kyau har yanzu, a matakin gida tare da tukunyar jirgi da murhunan da aka keɓance shi kawai.

takardar don samar da pellet

Idan kana son karin bayani zaka iya karanta labarin abokin aikina Germán Duk abin da kuke buƙatar sani game da murhun pellet

Ta wannan hanyar, ba wanda zai tsayar da ku a kan batun biomass kuma wa ya sani, wataƙila kun yi kuskure ku girka ɗayan waɗannan murhunan a cikin gidanku.


Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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