Arcturus

arcturus

A lokacin bazara da farkon lokacin rani, duk wani mai kallo a arewacin duniya zai lura da wani tauraro mai haske a sararin sama, sama: fitaccen lemu, sau da yawa kuskure ga Mars. Shin Arcturus, Tauraro mafi haske a cikin ƙungiyar taurarin Bootes. An san cewa ita ce tauraro mafi haskakawa a duk fadin sararin samaniya.

Saboda haka, za mu keɓe wannan labarin don gaya muku duk abin da kuke buƙatar sani game da Arcturus, halaye da abubuwan son sani.

Arcturus, tauraro mafi haska a cikin sararin samaniya baki ɗaya

arcturus star

Sun kiyasta cewa Arcturus wani katon tauraro ne da ke yin kashedin abin da zai faru da rana nan da shekaru biliyan 5. Girman girman Arcturus shine sakamakon jujjuyawar tauraro a ciki, wanda shine sakamakon tsufansa. Kashi 90% na taurarin da muke gani a sararin sama suna buƙatar damuwa da yin abu ɗaya kawai: canza hydrogen zuwa helium. Lokacin da taurari suka yi haka, masana astronomers sun ce suna cikin "yankin babban tsari." Rana ta yi haka. Ko da yake yanayin zafin rana kasa da ma'aunin Celsius 6.000 (ko 5.770 Kelvin ya zama daidai), ainihin zafinsa ya kai digiri miliyan 40, wanda ya faru ne saboda halayen haɗin gwiwar nukiliya. Cibiyar tana girma kadan kadan, tana tara helium a cikinta.

Idan muka jira shekaru biliyan 5, yankin ciki na rana, yankin da ya fi zafi, zai yi girma sosai don fadada layin waje kamar balon iska mai zafi. Iska mai zafi ko iskar gas za ta mamaye ƙarar girma kuma rana za ta zama jajayen tauraro mai girma. Idan akai la'akari da yawanta, Arcturus ya mamaye babban girma. Yawansa bai kai 0,0005 yawan rana ba.

Canjin launi na tauraro mai faɗaɗawa ya faru ne saboda kasancewar a yanzu an tilasta wa tsakiya ta dumama wani yanki mai girma, wanda ya zama kamar tauraro mai wutsiya da ke ƙoƙarin yin zafi sau ɗari tare da irin wannan kuna. Saboda haka, yanayin zafi yana raguwa kuma taurari suna yin ja. Hasken ja ya yi daidai da raguwar zafin jiki na kusan 4000 Kelvin ko ƙasa da haka. Daidai sosai, yanayin zafin saman Arcturus yana da digiri 4.290 Kelvin. Bakan Arcturus ya bambanta da Rana, amma yayi kama da bakan tabo. Sunspots yankuna ne na "sanyi" na Rana, don haka wannan ya tabbatar da cewa Arcturus tauraro ne mai sanyi.

Arcturus fasali

taurari

Lokacin da tauraro ke fadadawa da sauri, matsa lamba na matsi a tsakiya zai ba da dan kadan, sannan tsakiyar tauraron zai "rufe". Koyaya, hasken daga Arcturus ya fi haske fiye da yadda ake tsammani. Wasu mutane suna cin amana wannan yana nufin cewa tsakiya yanzu ma an "sake kunnawa" ta hanyar haɗa helium cikin carbon. Da kyau, tare da wannan misali, mun riga mun san dalilin da yasa Arcturus ya kumbura: zafi yana mamaye shi. Arcturus ya kusan sau 30 na rana kuma, abin mamaki, yawansa kusan iri ɗaya ne da Astro Rey. Wasu sun kiyasta cewa ingancin su ya karu da kashi 50 kawai.

A ka'idar, tauraro da ke samar da carbon daga helium a cikin halayen haɗin gwiwar nukiliya ba zai iya nuna aikin maganadisu kamar rana ba, amma Arcturus zai fitar da hasken X-ray mai laushi. yana nuna cewa yana da kambi mai dabara wanda magnetism ke motsa shi.

Tauraruwar baƙo

tauraro da tauraro mai wutsiya

Arcturus na cikin halo na Milky Way. Taurari a cikin halo ba sa motsi a cikin jirgin Milky Way kamar rana, amma kewayawarsu suna cikin wani jirgin sama mai karkata zuwa ga rudani. Wannan na iya bayyana saurin motsinsa a sararin sama. Rana tana bin jujjuyawar Milky Way, yayin da Arcturus ba ya. Wani ya nuna cewa Arcturus na iya fitowa daga wani galaxy kuma ya yi karo da Milky Way fiye da shekaru biliyan 5 da suka wuce. Aƙalla wasu taurari 52 suna bayyana a cikin tafsirin Arcturus. An san su da "Ƙungiyar Arcturus."

Kowace rana, Arcturus yana kusantar tsarin mu na hasken rana, amma ba ya samun kusanci. A halin yanzu tana kusan kusan kilomita 5 a cikin dakika guda. Shekaru rabin miliyan da suka gabata, tauraro mai girma na shida ne wanda kusan ba a iya gani, yanzu yana tafiya zuwa Virgo a cikin gudun fiye da kilomita 120 a cikin dakika daya.

Bootes, El Boyero, ƙungiyar taurari ce ta arewa mai sauƙin samun, wanda mafi kyawun tauraro a cikin ƙungiyar taurarin Ursa Major ke jagoranta. Yawancin kowa na iya gane siffar skillet da aka zana tsakanin kashin Big Dipper da wutsiya. Hannun wannan kwanon rufi yana nuni zuwa ga Arcturus. Ita ce tauraro mafi haske a wannan wajen. Wasu masu tsattsauran ra'ayi na ''sabon zamani'' sun yi imani cewa akwai Arcturians, ƙabilar baƙi ta ci gaba da fasaha. Duk da haka, da akwai tsarin duniyar da ke kewaya wannan tauraro, da an gano shi tuntuni.

Wasu tarihin

Arcturus yana dumama duniya kamar wutar kyandir a nisan kilomita 8. Amma kar mu manta cewa kusan shekaru 40 na haske daga gare mu. Idan muka maye gurbin rana da Arcturus, idanunmu za su gan ta sau 113 kuma fatarmu za ta yi zafi da sauri. Idan an yi shi da infrared radiation za mu ga cewa ya fi rana haske sau 215. Idan aka kwatanta jimillar haskensa da bayyananniyar haskensa (girman girmansa), an kiyasta cewa shekarun haske 37 ne daga duniya. Idan yanayin zafi na saman yana da alaƙa da adadin hasken da yake haifarwa a duniya, an kiyasta cewa diamita dole ne ya zama kilomita miliyan 36, wanda ya ninka Rana sau 26.

Arcturus ita ce tauraro na farko da aka samu a rana tare da taimakon na'urar hangen nesa. Masanin ilimin taurari mai nasara shine Jean-Baptiste Morin. wanda ya yi amfani da ƙaramin na'urar hangen nesa mai jujjuyawa a cikin 1635. Za mu iya maimaita gwajin a hankali, guje wa kowane farashi don nuna na'urar hangen nesa kusa da rana. Ƙayyadadden kwanan wata don ƙoƙarin wannan aikin shine Oktoba.

Idan aka zo ga taurarin baya, motsin Arcturus yana da ban mamaki - baka na inci 2,29 a kowace shekara. Daga cikin fitattun taurari Alpha Centauri ne kawai ke motsawa da sauri. Wanda ya fara lura da motsin Arcturus shine Edmond Halley a shekara ta 1718. Akwai abubuwa guda biyu da suke sa tauraro ya nuna gagarumin motsin kai: babban saurinsa na gaske dangane da kewayenta da kusancinsa da tsarin hasken rana. Arcturus ya cika waɗannan sharuɗɗan guda biyu.

Ina fatan cewa tare da wannan bayanin za ku iya ƙarin koyo game da Arcturus da halayensa.


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