Alpha Centauri

Alpha Centauri

Stephen Hawking, Yuri Milner da Mark Zuckerberg sun jagoranci kwamitin gudanarwa na wani sabon shiri mai suna Breakthrough Starshot, wanda wata rana za a iya amfani da fasaharsa ta kai ga tauraron da ke makwabtaka da duniya. Alpha Centauri. Kazalika kasancewar makasudin “sauƙi”, kasancewar yana ɗaya daga cikin taurari mafi kusanci da rana, masana ilmin taurari sun kasance suna kallon taurarin maƙwabtanmu don yuwuwar taurari masu kama da duniya. Alpha Centauri ita ce tauraruwarmu mafi kusa, amma idan muka yi magana game da sararin samaniya, ba kusa ba ne. Yana da nisa fiye da shekaru 4 haske, ko mil biliyan 25. Matsalar ita ce tafiye-tafiyen sararin samaniya, kamar yadda muka sani, yana da sannu a hankali. Idan jirgin Voyager mai saurin tafiya ya bar duniyarmu da nisan mil 11 a cikin dakika daya lokacin da dan Adam ya fara barin Afirka, da ya isa Alpha Centauri a yanzu.

A cikin wannan labarin za mu gaya muku duk abin da kuke buƙatar sani game da Alpha Centauri, halaye da mahimmancinsa.

Alpha Centauri tsarin

alpha centauri da taurari

Ita ce tauraro mafi kusa da rana kuma ana iya gani kawai a yankin kudanci. Ita ce tauraro na uku mafi haske a duniya kuma ya kunshi taurari da dama wadanda suke kama da maki guda na haske. Maƙwabtan taurari mafi kusa da rana taurari uku ne a cikin tsarin Alpha Centauri.

Manyan taurarin guda biyu sune Alpha Centauri A da B, waɗanda ke samar da nau'i biyu na binary. Sun kasance matsakaicin shekaru 4,3 haske daga Duniya.. Tauraro na uku shine Proxima Centauri. Alpha Centauri A da B suna saduwa a kowace shekara 80 a cikin kewayen barycentric gama gari. Matsakaicin tazarar da ke tsakaninsu kusan raka'a 11 ne na taurari (AU ko AU), kusan tazarar da muke samu tsakanin Rana da Uranus. Proxima Centauri shine kashi na biyar na shekara haske ko 13.000 AU daga sauran taurari biyu, tazarar da wasu masana ilmin taurari ke tambayar ko ya kamata a la'akari da shi a cikin tsarin iri ɗaya.

Alpha Centauri A ita ce tauraro na hudu mafi haske kamar yadda ake gani daga doron kasa, amma hadewar hasken Alpha Centauri A da B ya dan fi girma, don haka ta wannan ma'ana shi ne tauraro na uku mafi haske da ake iya gani a sararin samaniyar duniya. Tauraruwar rawaya Alpha Centauri A iri ɗaya ce ta tauraro da rana, amma ɗan girma. Saboda kusancinta da Duniya, sai ta bayyana a sararin samaniyar mu. Yanayin zafin saman sa yana da 'yan digiri Kelvin mai sanyaya fiye da na Rana, amma Girman diamita da faɗin faɗin fili ya sa ya fi Rana haske kusan sau 1,6.

Mafi ƙanƙanta memba na tsarin, orange Alpha Centauri B, ya ɗan ƙanƙanta da rana tamu kuma yana da nau'in K2. Saboda yanayin sanyi da rabin hasken Rana, Alpha Centauri B zai haskaka da kansa a matsayin tauraro na 21 mafi haske a sararin samaniyar mu. Wadannan biyun su ne mafi haske sassa na tsarin, yawo a kusa da na kowa cibiyar nauyi a kowace shekara 80. Wuraren kewayawa suna da elliptical, tare da matsakaita tazarar dake tsakanin taurari biyu kusan 11 AU, ko tazarar Duniya-Rana.

Wuri da taurarin Alpha Centauri

taurari da kewayawa

Wannan tsarin tauraro yana daya daga cikin tsarin taurari mafi kusa da rana, kimanin shekaru 4,37 haske daga rana. wanda yayi daidai da fadin kilomita miliyan 41.300.

Taurarin da suka hada Alpha Centauri uku ne:

  • Proxima Centauri: wannan tauraro yana ƙone mai a hankali, don haka yana iya wanzuwa tsawon lokaci. A watan Agustan 2016, an sanar da gano wata duniya mai girman duniya da ke kewaya yankin da ake zaune a kusa da Proxima Centauri, duniyar mai suna Proxima b. An gano Proxima Centauri a cikin 1915 ta masanin falaki Robert Innes.
  • Alpha Centauri A: Tauraro ne na nau'in K-orange wanda ke cikin tsarin tauraro na binary. Yana da haske, babba, kuma an yi imanin ya girmi rana. An rarraba shi azaman dwarf rawaya. Yana da jujjuyawar kwanaki 22.
  • Alpha Centauri B: Tauraruwa ce mai kama da babbar tauraruwarmu, Rana, mai nau'in nau'in G, kuma tana jujjuyawa a cikin kewayawa na kusan shekaru 80. An yi imani da cewa an haife shi a lokaci guda da A.

Masana kimiyya da masu ilmin taurari sun sami hujjoji masu karo da juna na wanzuwar duniyoyi biyu masu haɗin duniya a cikin Alpha Centauri. Sakamakon binciken yana da alaƙa sosai da gano exoplanet Alpha Centauri B a cikin 2012. Wannan duniyar tana da siffofi kama da Duniya. Kasancewar exoplanets yana gaya mana cewa dole ne a sami ƙarin taurari masu kewayawa a cikin tsari ɗaya.

Za a iya samun rayuwa?

tauraro tari

Ƙimar wannan tsarin don ɗaukar nauyin halittu masu rai ya kasance yana sha'awar masana kimiyya koyaushe, amma sananne exoplanets ba a taba samu a can, a wani bangare saboda yana da kusanci sosai ga masana ilmin taurari su kalli abubuwan duniyar da ke yankin. Amma a cikin wata takarda da aka buga Laraba a Nature Communications, ƙungiyar masana sararin samaniya ta ƙasa da ƙasa ta gano sa hannun hoto mai haske na yankin Alpha Centauri A, godiya ga Babban na'urar hangen nesa ta Kudancin Turai (ESO). Chili

An samo siginar a matsayin wani ɓangare na aikin Alpha Center Regional Near-Earth (NEAR), wanda ESO da Breakthrough Observing Astronomy Initiative suka bayar. tare da gudummawar kusan Euro miliyan 2,8. Na karshen, wanda hamshakin attajirin kasar Rasha Yuri Milner ke marawa baya, yana neman duniyoyi masu duwatsu, masu girman duniya a kusa da Alpha Centauri da sauran tsarin taurari a cikin shekaru 20 na haske na mu.

NEAR yana ba da damar haɓakawa da yawa zuwa na'urar hangen nesa ta Chile, gami da ma'aunin zafin rana, wanda ke toshe hasken tauraro kuma yana neman sa hannun zafi daga abubuwan duniya yayin da suke nuna hasken tauraro. Bayan nazarin bayanan sa'o'i 100, An sami sigina a kusa da Alpha Centauri A.

Duniyar da ake magana ba a ma ambaci sunanta ba, haka kuma ba a tabbatar da wanzuwarta ba. Sabuwar siginar ta nuna cewa tana da girman girman Neptune, wanda ke nufin cewa ba mu magana game da duniya mai kama da duniya ba, a'a, babban ball na iskar gas ya fi girma sau biyar zuwa bakwai. A cikin yanayin tunanin cewa yana da rai, zai iya bayyana a cikin nau'i na microbes da aka dakatar a cikin girgije. Hakanan ana iya haifar da siginar ta wani abu dabam, kamar girgijen ƙurar ƙura mai zafi, ƙarin abubuwa masu nisa a bango, ko ɓoyayyun photon.

Ina fatan cewa tare da wannan bayanin zaku iya ƙarin koyo game da Alpha Centauri da halayen sa.


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