Yadda aka samu tsaunuka

Ta yaya tsaunuka suke samuwa a duniya?

Ana san dutsen da girman ƙasa kuma shine samfurin ƙarfin tectonic, yawanci fiye da mita 700 sama da tushe. Wadannan tuddai na filin gabaɗaya an haɗa su cikin tudu ko tsaunuka, kuma suna iya zama gajere kamar mil da yawa. Tun farkon ɗan adam ya kasance yana mamaki Yadda aka samu tsaunuka.

A saboda wannan dalili, za mu keɓe wannan labarin don gaya muku yadda tsaunuka suka kasance, halayensu da tsarin ilimin ƙasa.

menene dutse

faranti karo

Tsaunuka sun dauki hankalin mutane tun zamanin da, galibi a al'adance suna da alaƙa da tsayi, kusanci ga Allah (sama), ko kuma a matsayin misali na ƙoƙarin ci gaba da samun hangen nesa mai girma ko mafi kyau. Haƙiƙa, hawan dutse aiki ne na motsa jiki da ke da matukar mahimmanci wajen la'akari da sananniya kashi na duniyarmu.

Akwai hanyoyi da yawa don rarraba tsaunuka. Misali, dangane da tsawo ana iya raba shi zuwa (daga karami zuwa babba): tsaunuka da tsaunuka. Hakanan, ana iya rarraba su gwargwadon asalinsu kamar: volcanic, nadawa ko nadawa-laifi.

A ƙarshe, ana iya rarraba ƙungiyoyin tsaunuka gwargwadon sifarsu ta haɗin gwiwa: idan an haɗa su a tsaye, muna kiran su dutsen; idan an haɗa su ta hanyar daɗaɗɗen ko madauwari, muna kiran su massifs. Duwatsu sun rufe babban yanki na saman duniya: 53% daga Asiya, 25% daga Turai, 17% daga Australia da 3% daga Afirka, jimlar 24%. Tunda kusan kashi 10% na al'ummar duniya suna rayuwa ne a wurare masu tsaunuka, duk ruwan kogin dole ne ya kasance a saman tsaunuka.

Yadda aka samu tsaunuka

Yadda aka samu tsaunuka

Samuwar tsaunuka, wanda aka sani da orogeny, daga baya abubuwan waje kamar zaizayewa ko motsin tectonic sun yi tasiri a kansu. Tsaunuka suna tasowa ne daga nakasar da ke cikin ɓawon ƙasa, yawanci a mahadar faranti guda biyu, waɗanda idan suka yi yaƙi da juna. sa lithosphere ya ninka, tare da jijiya ɗaya tana gudana ƙasa ɗayan kuma sama, yana haifar da ƙugiya na nau'ikan tsayi daban-daban

A wasu lokuta, wannan tsari na tasiri yana haifar da wani Layer don nutsewa a karkashin kasa, wanda zafi ya narke ya zama magma, wanda ya tashi sama ya zama dutsen mai aman wuta.

Don yin sauƙi, za mu bayyana yadda tsaunuka ke samuwa ta hanyar gwaji. A cikin wannan gwaji, za mu bayyana yadda tsaunuka ke samuwa a hanya mai sauƙi. Don yin hakan, muna buƙatar kawai: Plasticine na launi daban-daban, ƴan littattafai da abin birgima.

Da farko, don fahimtar yadda tsaunuka ke samuwa, za mu gudanar da simulation mai sauƙi na shimfidar ƙasa. Don wannan za mu yi amfani da filastik mai launi. A cikin misalinmu, mun zaɓi kore, launin ruwan kasa, da orange.

Koren filastik yana simulators na ɓawon nahiyoyi na Duniya. A gaskiya, wannan ɓawon burodi yana da tsawon kilomita 35. Idan da ɓawon burodi bai yi ba, da duniyar teku za ta rufe gaba ɗaya.

Plasticine mai launin ruwan kasa yayi daidai da lithosphere, mafi girman Layer na sararin duniya. Zurfinsa yana canzawa tsakanin kilomita 10 zuwa 50. Motsin wannan Layer shine na faranti na tectonic waɗanda gefunansu suke inda aka samu abubuwan al'amuran ƙasa.

A ƙarshe, yumbu mai lemu shine asthenosphere ɗin mu, wanda ke ƙarƙashin lithosphere kuma shine saman rigar. Wannan Layer yana fuskantar matsin lamba da zafi sosai wanda yake nuna hali na filastik, yana barin motsi na lithosphere.

sassan dutsen

manyan duwatsu a duniya

Duwatsu yawanci suna da:

  • Kasan kafa ko kafa tushe, yawanci akan ƙasa.
  • Koli, kololuwa ko cusp. Sashe na sama da na ƙarshe, ƙarshen tudu, ya kai mafi girman tsayin da zai yiwu.
  • tudu ko siket. Haɗa sassan ƙasa da na sama na gangaren.
  • Bangaren gangaren tsakanin kololuwa biyu (dutse biyu) wanda ke haifar da karamin bakin ciki ko damuwa.

Yanayi da ciyayi

Yanayin tsaunin gabaɗaya ya dogara da abubuwa biyu: latitude ɗinku da tsayin dutsen. Zazzabi da matsa lamba na iska koyaushe suna ƙasa a mafi tsayi, yawanci a 5 °C kowace kilomita na tsayi.

Hakanan yana faruwa da ruwan sama, wanda ya fi yawa a saman tuddai, don haka yana yiwuwa a sami wuraren da ke da ruwa a saman tsaunuka fiye da a cikin filayen, musamman inda aka haifi manyan koguna. Idan ka ci gaba da hawan, danshi da ruwa za su juya zuwa dusar ƙanƙara kuma a ƙarshe kankara.

Tsire-tsire na tsaunin sun dogara sosai ga yanayi da wurin da dutsen yake. Amma yawanci yakan faru ne a hankali a cikin tsattsauran yanayi yayin da kuke hawa kan gangara. Saboda haka, a cikin ƙananan benaye, kusa da ƙafar dutsen. filayen filayen da ke kewaye ko kuma dazuzzukan montane suna da wadatar ciyayi, dazuzzuka masu yawa, da tsayi.

Amma yayin da kake hawan hawan, nau'in da ya fi juriya ya mamaye, yana cin gajiyar ajiyar ruwa da yawan ruwan sama. Sama da wuraren da ke da katako, ana jin rashin iskar oxygen kuma an rage ciyayi zuwa makiyaya tare da shrubs da ƙananan ciyawa. Sakamakon haka, kololuwar tsaunuka kan zama bushewa, musamman waɗanda dusar ƙanƙara da ƙanƙara ke rufe su.

Duwatsu biyar mafi tsayi

Duwatsu biyar mafi tsayi a duniya sune:

  • Dutsen Everest. A tsayin mita 8.846, shi ne dutse mafi tsayi a duniya, wanda yake a saman tsaunin Himalayas.
  • K2 duwatsu. Daya daga cikin tsaunuka mafi wahalar hawa a duniya, mai tsayin mita 8611 sama da matakin teku. Yana tsakanin China da Pakistan.
  • Kachenjunga. Ya kasance tsakanin Indiya da Nepal, a tsayin mita 8598. Sunanta yana fassara a matsayin "taska biyar a cikin dusar ƙanƙara."
  • Aconcagua. Wannan dutsen yana cikin Andes na Argentine a lardin Mendoza, ya kai mita 6.962 kuma shi ne kololuwar kololuwa a nahiyar Amurka.
  • Nevada Ojos del Salado. Yana da wani stratovolcano, wani ɓangare na tsaunin Andes, wanda ke kan iyakar Chile da Argentina. Dutsen dutse mafi girma a duniya yana da tsayin mita 6891,3.

Ina fatan cewa tare da wannan bayanin za ku iya ƙarin koyo game da yadda ake kafa tsaunuka da halayensu.


Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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