Ural tsaunuka

Ural tsaunuka

Duwatsun da za mu yi bayaninsu a yau ana daukar su a matsayin iyakokin ƙasa tsakanin nahiyoyin Turai da Asiya. Labari ne game da Ural tsaunuka. Suna da mahimmancin tarihi da tattalin arziki kuma suna cikin yankin tsakiyar yamma na Rasha. Mun ce yana da mahimmancin tattalin arziki tunda shine tushen albarkatun ma'adinai kuma yana ɗaya daga cikin tsoffin tsaunukan tsaunuka ta fuskar ƙasa. Mun tuna cewa ana auna shekarun jeri na tsaunuka tare da lokacin ilimin kasa kuma hakan yana nuna yawancin shekarun dan adam.

A cikin wannan labarin zamu nuna muku halaye na tsaunukan Ural, flora da fauna da mahimmancin tattalin arziki da tarihi.

Babban fasali

Yankin yanki na Urals

Yanayin wannan tsaunin tsaunin ba kowa bane tsakanin sauran nau'ikan jeri jeri. Idan muka kwatanta shi da sauran tsarin tsaunuka kamar zangon himalayan, yana da kusan madaidaiciyar siga. Wannan ba al'ada bane a tsarin tsaunuka. Yankin Urals An yi amfani da shi don samun ma'adanai, mai da duwatsu masu daraja. Don haka akwai babbar tasirin tattalin arziki.

Tunda tsaunin tsauni ne wanda yake da dadadden tsufa, rarar mai ta kasance tsayayye kuma cikakke don hakarta da amfani. Bugu da kari, hakar wasu ma'adanai suma sun yi aiki don inganta tattalin arzikin yankunan da ke kusa da wadannan tsaunukan.

Kodayake sunan kan tsaunin kansa ba a san shi ba, wasu bayanan daga ƙarni na XNUMX da XNUMX sun samo asali ne daga wasu yaren Turkanci. Wadannan tsaunukan ba sanannu bane sosai ga tarihin Turai na zamani. Masana binciken ƙasa daga tsakiyar Asiya sun riga sun sami cikakken ilimin game da duk abin da ya shafi Ural Mountains tun ƙarni na XNUMX.

An kiyasta shekarun kewayon dutse tsakanin shekaru miliyan 250 zuwa 300, wanda ake ganin daya daga cikin tsaffin tsauraran tsaunuka a duniyarmu. Tana da tsayin kusan kilomita 2500 da kuma fadin kilomita 150 a wasu sassan mafi fadi. Extensionarinsa ya fito ne daga Tundra na gabar tekun Arctic zuwa Kogin Ural da arewa maso yammacin Kazakhstan.

Tunda yana da girma a girmansa, an rarraba shi da juzu'i ta yankuna kamar su Polar Urals, Subpolar Urals, Northern Urals, Central Urals, da Kudancin Urals. Wannan shine yadda aka zaɓi cikakken kewayon tsauni ta hanyar tubalan don sauƙaƙa don zaɓar wurin wasu abubuwa.

Bayanin sassanta

Ciyawar Ural

A cikin ɓangaren subpolar shine inda zamu iya samun wuraren tsaunuka tare da mafi girman tsawo da yawan kankara. Dogaro da yankin tsayin ya bambanta, amma yawanci yana tsakanin mita 1000 zuwa 1500. A wasu yankuna, tsaunukan ba komai bane face tsaunuka masu sauki.

Matsakaicin mafi girma da yake da shi shine Narodnaya, wanda yake kusan tsayin 1895. Wani ɗayan shahararrun kololuwa shine Telposiz mai mita 1617. Saboda yanayin yanayi da halayensa, ɓangarorin arewacin tsaunukan Ural ba su da buyayyar wuri kuma ba za a iya nome su a can ba. Ba tare da ƙasar da za ta iya tallafawa tsirrai da ciyayi saboda yanayin dusar ƙanƙara da yanayin ƙanƙara ba, yana da 'yan tsirarun yankunan dutse. A yankin Polar Urals, hunturu yakan dauki kimanin watanni 7. Wannan wani abu ne wanda ba al'ada bane, amma saboda yanayin yanayi da wurin, ana yawan fadada wannan lokacin.

Subangaren mai jujjuyawar yana da ƙazantaccen yanayin wuri mai faɗi tare da wadatattun ƙarancin metamorphic da dutsen da ke kwance. Wadannan nau'in dutse an kirkiresu ne ta hanyar janyewar kankararrun kankara da kuma samarda sabuwar kankara shekara shekara tsawon shekaru da shekaru.

Hakanan yana da rafuka da yawa wadanda suka tsallake duka tsaunin tsaunin. Yammacin gefen dutsen yana da kogin Kama da Bélaya. A kudu akwai Kogin Ural, wanda shine wanda yake gudana zuwa Tekun Kaspian.

Samuwar Ural Mountains

Cikakken kewayon tsaunukan Urals

An yi la'akari da ɗayan tsofaffin tsaunukan tsaunuka a duniya. An kiyasta shekarunsa tsakanin shekaru miliyan 250 zuwa 300. Idan aka kwatanta da sauran shahararrun tsaunuka kamar Himalayas, wannan bai wuce shekaru miliyan 60 ba. Saboda haka, A cikin Urals, yawanci yashewar ƙasa yawanci ana kiyaye shi tsawon shekaru, yana shafar yanayin yanayin kankara, narkewa, iska, ruwan sama, da dai sauransu.

Duwatsu sun fara farawa lokacin da matakan karshe wanda aka rufe teku ya fara. Wannan ya faru ne saboda rarrabuwa na Pangea. Da tectonic faranti mun yi wasu ƙungiyoyin haɗari waɗanda suka sa ɓawon burodi ya yi karo da juna don samar da tsaunukan Ural.

Masana ilimin kasa suna tunanin cewa ya fara samuwa ne a lokacin marigayi Carboniferous da Permian. Ya kasance, a waccan lokacin, da aka sani da gefen babban yankin da aka sani da Laurasia. Haɗuwa da ɓawon burodi na ƙasa ya ɗauki shekaru miliyan da yawa inda aka ɗauke ɓawon ɗin gaba ɗaya kuma aka kafa duwatsu. Tsawon shekarun da ya gabata yana lalacewa kuma kwanan watan samuwar zai iya zama kwanan wata. Akasin haka, Himalayas har yanzu suna da kololuwarsu "sabuwa" ba tare da sun huce ba, wanda ke nuna samarin kololuwarsu.

Duk da duk abin da ya faru, tsarin tsaunukan Ural bai sami canje-canje da yawa ba. Gaba ɗaya, zamu iya samun kiyaye shi da kyau. Ganin cewa yana da manyan albarkatun ƙasa kamar ma'adinai ta hanya mai yawa kuma mai yalwa, mahimmancin tattalin arziki da yake da shi duk wannan lokaci yana da yawa. Daga cikin wadatattun ma'adanai da zamu iya samu akwai ajiya na jan ƙarfe, carbon, manganese, zinariya, baƙin ƙarfe, nickel, aluminum da potassium.

Flora da fauna

Ural fauna

Hakanan akwai wadataccen flora da fauna waɗanda suka dace da nau'ikan yanayin muhalli waɗanda muke samu a kowane ɓangare. A kudu daga tsaunukan tsaunuka mun sami babban murfin ciyayi tare da nau'ikan nau'ikan daban-daban. Inari a cikin ɓangaren medial akwai taiga da nau'ikan gandun daji daban-daban kuma, a arewacin Tekun Caspian, muna samun stepes da rabin hamada.

Game da fauna kuma, zamu sami manyan halittu masu yawa. Mun sami nau'ikan kifaye, daban-daban masu rarrafe, dabbobi masu shayarwa, dabbobi masu rarrafe, amphibians da tsuntsaye. Daya daga cikin jinsin da aka fi sani shine mai kiwon dabbobi.

Ina fatan wannan bayanin zai taimaka muku don ƙarin sani game da tsaunukan Ural.


Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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