Tsaunukan Andes

Halaye na manyan kololuwa

Ofayan sanannun tsarin tsaunuka a duniya shine Tsaunukan Andes. Ana samunsa a Kudancin Amurka kuma ana ɗaukar sa mafi tsayi mafi tsayi kuma na biyu mafi girma a duniya bayan Himalaya. Asalin sunan wannan zangon tsaunin bai cika bayyana ba tunda yana yiwuwa ya samo asali ne ta hanyoyi da dama. Daya yuwuwar shine cewa andes ya fito ne daga kalmar anti daga Quechua abin da ke nufin "tashe." Wasu kuma suna tunanin cewa ya samo asali ne daga sunan Antisuyo wanda shine ɗayan yankuna 4 na masarautar Inca.

A cikin wannan labarin zamu gaya muku game da duk halaye na tsaunin tsaunin Andes da mahimmancinsa gwargwadon yanayin halittu da albarkatun ƙasa.

Babban fasali

Kololuwar ƙafafu

Yankin tsauni ne wanda yake a layi daya da gabar teku kuma yana zaune a yankin da ke da tasirin girgizar ƙasa da tsaunuka masu ƙarfi. Wannan aikin girgizar kasa da dutsen da yake fitarwa shi ne ya haifar da rashin daidaiton yanayin kasa da kuma samun irin wannan tsaunin. Tana cikin Ringungiyar Wuta ta Pacific. Kodayake tana da waɗannan rashin kwanciyar hankali saboda girman fadadarsa, tana da ƙarancin iskar oxygen sakamakon tsawanta. Duk da wannan yana da yawancin mutanen ƙasar da aka samo a cikin wannan yankin waɗanda suka dace da sauƙi da tsawo.

Daular Inca ɗayan ɗayan shahararrun mutane ne waɗanda ke zaune a yankin ƙasar Andes a zamanin pre-Hispanic. Babban birninta Machu Picchu yana cikin wannan wuri sama da mita 2400 sama da matakin teku. Jimlar tsawan wannan tsauni kusan kilomita 7.000. Yana tsakanin kilomita 200 zuwa 700 fadi, ya danganta da yankin da muke. Matsakaicin tsaunuka da wannan tsaunin ke da shi ya kai mita 6962. Matsakaicin matsayinta shine Aconcagua.

Don neman wannan tsaunin tsauni dole ne mu tafi yankin yamma na Kudancin Amurka kuma yana farawa daga gabar Tekun Caribbean zuwa ƙarshen kudancin nahiyar. Ya ƙetare jimillar ƙasashe 7 tsakanin waɗanda muke da Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia, Peru, Chile da Argentina.

Kololuwa mafiya tsayi

Ana samun manyan kololuwa a tsaunin tsaunin Andes a cikin Peru, Argentina, da Ecuador. Sauran kololuwan da ke ƙasa ana samunsu a ƙarshen arewa da kudu. Tsaunin tsaunin ya ƙunshi tsaunuka da tsaunuka masu yawa daga cikinsu sanannun Aconcagua da sauransu kamar waɗannan masu zuwa: Nevado Ojos del Salado, Huascarán, Chimborazo, Nevado del Ruiz, Galeras da Bonete.

Wasu daga cikin dutsen da ke aiki a duniyarmu suna cikin wannan tsaunin. Gabaɗaya, ana iya lissafin shi yana da kusan 183 tsaunuka masu aiki. Wanzuwar aikin girgizar ƙasa da na aman wuta yana nufin cewa akwai wasu maɓuɓɓugan ruwan zafi da sauran ma'adanai masu sha'awar tattalin arziki.

Rabuwa da tsaunin tsaunin Andes

Tsarin shimfidar wuri na tsaunin tsaunukan Andes

Adadin duka tsaunin tsaunin za'a iya raba shi zuwa duka sassan. Na farko ya kasance a yankin arewa wanda ya hada da bangaren Venezuela da Colombia. Kashi na biyu ana ɗauke shi azaman tsakiyar Andes kuma yayi daidai da biranen Bolivia, Peru da Ecuador. A ƙarshe, muna da kashi na uku na tsaunin dutse da ake kira kudancin Andes kuma ya dace da biranen Chile da Argentina.

Wannan rarrabuwa ya samarda wani yanki na iyaka tsakanin kasashe daban-daban wadanda suke tare da wannan tsaunin. Hakanan yana aiki don raba wasu yankuna a cikin ƙasashen kansu. Kodayake tsaunuka galibi suna cikin wurare masu zafi, akwai manyan tsaunuka waɗanda saboda tsayinsu suna lulluɓe da dusar ƙanƙara a mafi yawan shekara kuma, sakamakon haka, gida ne na kankara.

Wadannan kankarar sune wadanda ke barazana ga hauhawar ruwan teku saboda dumamar yanayi. Mafi yawan wannan yankin yana da yanayin bushewa, musamman a yankin gabas. Koyaya, idan kun tafi yamma zaku iya samun tsarin ruwan sama mai yawa.

Yana da kyakkyawan yanayin ƙasa sakamakon wannan ci gaba da girgizar ƙasa. A cikin yankin Andean za mu iya samun tsaunuka da yawa a wani babban wuri inda wasu manyan biranen Kudancin Amurka irin su La Paz, da Quito da Bogotá suke. Wannan tsauni shine na biyu mafi girma a duniya, ya fito tsakanin Bolivia da Peru kuma Tana can a tsawan sama da mita 3.600 sama da matakin teku.

Asalin tsaunin tsaunin Andes

Flora da fauna na Andes

Wannan zinariya mai kuka tana zuwa ne daga zamanin da na uku na Mesozoic. Suna kan wani yanki mai aiki ne na yau da kullun kuma girgizar kasa da kuma fashewar tsaunuka abubuwa ne da yawa. Samun ci gaba da girgizar ƙasa gaba ɗaya kan lokaci da kuma bayyana kololuwa, wannan tsaunin tsaunin ana daukar shi matashi ne na ilimin yanayin kasa.

Ana tunanin cewa samuwar ta samo asali ne bayan rarrabuwa na Pangea kuma cewa, a lokacin dinosaur, yankin gaba ɗaya ya mamaye babban tabki ko kuma cikin teku. Bayan karyewar Pangea, faranti masu motsi suna ci gaba da motsawa a tsawon dukkan shekarun zamanin Jurassic har zuwa, yayin Cenozoic, farantin Nazca da na Antarctic sun motsa ƙasa da farantin Kudancin Amurka.

Wannan sauyawar faranti ya haifar da ƙirƙirar yankin yanki kuma farantin sun fara karo. Wannan ya haifar da karfi da aka yi amfani da shi wanda ya danne dutsen kuma sakamakon haka an sami girgizar kasa mai karfi wanda ya sa kwarin ya ture ya ninka, ya zama tsaunukan da suka zama duwatsu. Wadannan tsaunuka kuma suna ta hawa sama da shekaru miliyan 100 da suka gabata, musamman tare da yin aiki mafi girma a lokacin Babban Sakandare da Makaranta.

Flora da fauna

Tsaunukan Andes

Kasancewa babba, akwai yanayi da yanayi da yawa. Samun duk waɗannan canjin yanayin akwai adadi mai yawa na flora da fauna. Akwai attajirai waɗanda 'yan rayayyun halittu kaɗai za su iya rayuwa a cikinsu, amma a cikin sauran dubunnan jinsuna suna rayuwa tare.

Daga cikin fitattun fauna da muke samun katuwar kwadi daga Tafkin Titicaca, Andean zakara-da-kankara, llamas, pumas, hummingbirds da opossums, da sauransu. Amma ga flora, busassun dazuzzuka da kuma gandun daji na wurare masu zafi sun fita waje. Ciyawar ba ta da ƙarancin kasancewar ciyawar.

Ina fatan cewa tare da wannan bayanin zaku iya koyo game da tsaunin tsaunin Andes.


Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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