Sahara

Sahara

Wataƙila Sahara zai zama mafi shahara a duk duniya. Yanki ne na hamada da ke samun ruwan sama ƙasa da cm 25 a kowace shekara kuma ba shi da ɗan ciyayi ko kadan. Ana daukar hamada a matsayin dakunan gwaje-gwaje na halitta masu matukar amfani don nazarin cudanyawar iska da ruwa akan saman busassun duniya. Sun ƙunshi mahimman ma'adinai masu ma'ana waɗanda aka ƙirƙira a cikin yanayin busassun kuma waɗanda aka fallasa su ta ci gaba da yashewa daga iska da ruwan sama.

A cikin wannan labarin zamu gaya muku duk halaye, asali, yanayi, yanayin zafi, fure da fauna na sahara.

Babban fasali

flora da fauna na sahara

Yana daya daga cikin mahimman hamada a duniya kuma yana yankin yamma na yankin Afirka. Ya ƙunshi manyan filaye masu yawa daga Tekun Atlantika zuwa Bahar Maliya. Tana iyaka da Tekun Atlantika zuwa yamma da tsaunukan Atlas da Bahar Rum a arewa. Asalin wannan hamada ya samo asali ne tun shekaru miliyoyi. Wuraren da ke kewaye da bishiyun shuke-shuke da filayen ciyawa sun cika da dausayi kuma sun mamaye dazuzzuka. Wuri ne na mafarauta da masu tarin yawa waɗanda suka rayu akan dabbobi da tsire-tsire. A wannan lokacin ne ake kiran wannan yanki da Green Sahara.

Asalin hamada shi ne saboda babu wani ruwan sama da aka yi rikodin wanda ke kulawa da daidaita daidaituwa tsakanin ƙarancin iska da hasken rana da jujjuyawar tsire-tsire tare da hazo. A saboda wannan dalili, bayan abin da ya faru na bazara wanda lokacin rani ya taru kuma rashin laima yana haifar da ƙarin insolation.

Kimanin shekaru miliyan 7 da suka gabata aka kafa wannan jejin. Tekun Thetis yana cikin wannan yankin kuma ragowarsa sun bushe. Ta hanyar wannan jejin ya fara kafa shine fataucin amfani da shanu da amalanke. Kamar yadda muka ambata a baya, a farkon zamani ya kasance kurmi ne mai dauke da zanin gado kuma yana dauke da fauna da yawa. Tsarin samuwar babbar hamada a doron duniya ya kasance mai saurin tafiya da ci gaba. Ya ɗauki kimanin shekaru 6.000 kuma ya ƙare shekaru 2.700 da suka wuce.

Ya kamata a tuna da cewa tare da tsarin kwararowar hamada da ke barazana ga yawancin ƙasashen duniya, waɗannan hamada na iya ƙirƙira a cikin dogon lokaci. Spain tana da babban yanki na yankin da ake fuskantar barazanar hamada da kwararowar hamada. Wani ɓangare na ƙasa zai iya zama hamada ko yankunan hamada na rabin hamada.

Yanayi da yanayin zafi na sahara

Dry weather

Wasu daga cikin halaye na musamman na wannan hamada shine cewa ana ɗaukar sahara mafi girma a duniya. Hakanan ana ɗauka ɗayan ɗayan bushe kuma tare da mafi tsananin yanayin zafi. Kadan dabbobi da tsirrai ke zama a wadannan wuraren tunda babu wata rayuwa ko abubuwan gina jiki da zasu ciyar da kansu. A cikin waɗannan hamadar akwai kabilun Abzinawa da Berber. Mun san cewa ƙasa a cikin waɗannan yankuna suna da ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta, don haka aikin noma ba zaɓi bane. Babban haɗin ƙasa shine tsakuwa, yashi da dunes. A cikin irin wannan ƙasa ba zai iya tallafawa rayuwa mai ɗorewa wanda zai iya daidaitawa da waɗannan mahalli ba. Tunda canjin yanayin zafi na dare da rana yana da ƙari ƙwarai, da wuya kowane irin amfanin gona zai iya rayuwa.

Yanayi na hamadar Sahara An bayyana shi da samun ranakun rana da dare masu sanyi. Ruwan sama baƙon abu ne sosai da kuma lokacin da zai faru da ƙeta. Tasirin teku a wannan ɓangaren Afirka yana samar da danshi mai ɗanɗano a cikin sararin samaniya, saboda haka hazo suna yawaita a bakin hamada.

Game da yawan zafin jiki kuwa, yanayin yana yin zafi da bushewa sosai a lokacin rani, saboda haka yanayin yanayin yana da ban sha'awa kuma bambanci tsakanin yini da dare yana da yawa. Matsakaicin zazzabi da za'a iya kaiwa ta yadda yakamata yawanci yana tsakanin digiri 46. A wannan bangaren, da daddare yana iya kaiwa yanayin zafi har zuwa digiri 18. Kamar yadda kake gani, yana da matsanancin yanayin zafin jiki. Tasirin ruwan teku sananne ne sosai, don haka matsakaicin matsakaicin yanayin zafi yakai digiri 26 a gabar teku kuma waɗanda suke cikin ciki suna kusa da digiri 37.

Fure da fauna na hamadar Sahara

dunes

Mun san cewa da rana a cikin wannan jejin zafi da hasken rana suna da ƙarfi kuma suna buga duniya da ƙarfi. Yanayin zafi da hasken rana da danshi a yanayi. Babu hanyoyin samun ruwa ko yawan ruwan sama saboda haka zafi da zafi suna da yawa. Koyaya, cikin dare zafin jiki ya sauka da yawa, koda wasu ranaku zaka iya fuskantar sanyi. Sammai a bayyane suke saboda zafin da yake cikin rana da kyar ya daina. Hakanan ku tuna cewa, tare da sararin samaniya, zaku iya ganin wasan kwaikwayo gabaɗaya.

Fure da fauna na hamadar Sahara suna da ƙaranci idan aka yi la'akari da mawuyacin yanayi. Zaka iya samun wasu dabbobi kamar su raƙuma da awaki waɗanda suke da juriya ga waɗannan yanayin mahalli. Daya daga cikin dabbobin da suka dace sosai da wadannan mahalli shine kunama mai launin rawaya.. Shi masanin ilimin ɗan adam ne mai haɗari wanda ke yin addu'a na kwanaki ba zai same ku a hanya ba. Wasu nau'ikan kyankyaso, farin barewa, dorcas gazelle, da sauran nau'ikan suna iya rayuwa a wannan yanayin. Sun sami aiwatarwar daidaitawa da yawa cikin shekaru dubbai. Abu ne sananne a ga wasu macizai a cikin fulawa, karen daji na Afirka, wasu kada da kuma tsuntsaye masu son azurfa na Afirka.

Amma ga flora, ciyayi suna karanci sosai saboda karancin ruwa. Babu kusan babu irin ciyayi. Fewananan tsire-tsire da suka wanzu sun sami damar daidaitawa da muhalli don haka suna neman rage ƙimar ƙazamar ruwa da haɓaka ƙwanƙwasa ruwa. Wannan shine dalilin da yasa fewan tsirarun shuke-shuke da suke da leavesanana ganye da kyallen takarda da asalinsu masu tsayi. Don haka, suna tara ruwa da kyallen takarda da ganyayyakin da aka rufe da kakin zuma. Misali, zamu sami shuke-shuke kamar da wardi na Yariko, da Cystanche, da zilla, da itacen apple na Saduma.

Ina fatan da wannan bayanin zaku iya samun karin bayani game da hamadar Sahara da halayenta.


Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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