Pleistocene

Pleistocene

El lokacin quaternary suna da bangarori da yawa na ilimin kasa. A yau zamu maida hankali ne kan kashi na farko na wannan lokacin. Game da shi Pleistocene. Wannan rarrabuwar yanayin kasa ya kasance galibi ta hanyar samun yanayin ƙarancin yanayin duniya da bayyanar manyan dabbobi masu shayarwa irin su mammoth. Don fahimtar duk abin da nazarin lokaci na wannan yanayin ilimin ƙasa ya ƙunsa, ya zama dole a san daidai abin da lokacin ilimin kasa.

A cikin wannan labarin zamu gaya muku duk abin da kuke buƙatar sani game da Pleistocene.

Babban fasali

Pleistocene da dabbobi

Wannan lokacin yana ishara ne tun lokacin da ake nazarin halittar mutum. A lokacin Pleistocene Ya kasance lokacin da magabatan farko na mutumin zamani suka bayyana. Oneayan ɗayan binciken ilimin ƙasa ne kuma wanda yake da mafi yawan burbushin halittu. Wannan yana tabbatar da cewa bayanin da aka samu cikakke ne kuma abin dogaro.

Pleistocene ya fara game da Shekaru miliyan 2.6 kuma suka ƙare a ƙarshen shekarun ƙanƙara na ƙarshe sun faru ne a 10.000 BC A wannan lokacin da kyar aka sami wani babban motsi na nahiyoyi. Kusan ya kasance a wuri ɗaya.

Kamar yadda muka ambata a farkon labarin, duk wannan yanayin ilimin ƙasa ya kasance yana da alaƙa da yanayin ƙarancin yanayi a duniya. Wannan ya haifar da maye gurbin yanayin zagaye na sanyi wanda yanayin zafin jiki ke karuwa da raguwa. An san wannan a matsayin lokutan rikice-rikice. Kimanin 30% na duk duniyar tamu an rufe shi da kankara a wannan lokacin. Yankunan da suka ci gaba da yin sanyi har abada sune sanduna.

Amma fauna, manyan dabbobi masu shayarwa irin su mammoth, mastodons da megatherium sun rayu mafi girman ƙawarsu. Waɗannan dabbobi kusan sun mamaye duniyar don girmanta. Hakanan akwai ci gaban kakannin mutumin zamani waɗanda suke Homo erectus, Homo habilis, da Homo neanderthalensis.

Nazarin ilimin halittu na Pleistocene

Dabbobin Pleistocene

Yayin wannan rarrabuwa babu wani aiki mai yawa na ilimin ƙasa. Da Gudun daji Da alama cewa za a rage shi idan aka kwatanta shi da sauran lokutan baya. Kawai faranti na tectonic da nahiyoyin ke zaune a kansu ba su ƙi motsi fiye da kilomita 100 daga juna ba. Kusan a wannan lokacin nahiyoyin sun riga sun kasance a matsayi mai kama da wanda muke da shi a yau.

Gilashi sun kasance da yawa sosai a wannan lokacin, ember ya nace akan hawan keke da yawa na sanannen ƙaruwar raguwar yanayin zafin duniya. Wannan ya haifar da yankuna da dama gaba kudu zasu cika da dusar kankara. Sakamakon glaciations, yanayin lalatattun yanayi ya shafi saman nahiyoyin. Wannan shine abin da aka sani da samfurin glacier.

Har ila yau matakin teku ya ragu sosai da kimanin mita 100. Wannan shi ne saboda samuwar kankara yayin glaciations.

Yanayin Pleistocene

Cincin kankara na Pleistocene

A lokacin wannan matakin ilimin kasa, abin da aka sani da kankara Age. Wannan ba daidai bane tunda a lokacin Pleistocene jerin glaciations sun faru wanda a ciki akwai lokuta tare da yanayin zafi wanda ya fi muhalli girma wasu kuma ƙananan. Yanayin yanayi a yanayi yana canzawa a duk tsawon lokacin kodayake yanayin zafi ba su tashi ba kamar sauran lokutan ilimin duniya.

Yanayin damina kusan ci gaba ne na zamanin Pliocene da ya gabata. A wannan matakin, yanayin zafin duniya ya ragu sosai. An lura da raƙuman ƙasar da ke kusa da sandunan, kuma a wannan lokacin Antarctica ta kasance kusan a rufe take da kankara daga ƙarshen arewacin nahiyoyin Amurka da Turai yayin matakan glaciation.

A cikin duka matakin Pleistocene akwai glaciations 4.

Flora, fauna da mutane

Mutane na farko

A lokacin wannan matakin, rayuwa ta banbanta duk da cewa akwai iyakokin yanayi wadanda suka kasance saboda tsananin kyawu. A lokacin Pleistocene akwai da yawa nau'ikan halittu. A cikin kowane nau'in kwayar halitta, tsire-tsire waɗanda zasu iya dacewa da yanayin mawuyacin yanayi an haɓaka. A can arewacin duniyar duniyar da ke cikin Arctic Circle ne inda kwayar halittar da muka sani yau tundra ta bunkasa. Babban halayen tundra shine tsirrai ƙananan ne, babu bishiyun ganye ko babba. A cikin wannan nau'ikan halittu, lichens suna da yawa.

Taiga shima wani biome ne wanda aka lura dashi lokacin Pleistocene. Taiga ya ƙunshi nau'ikan kayan ganyayyaki kawai inda suka fi yawa bishiyoyi masu ɗimbin yawa kuma wani lokacin sukan kai matuka. Kamar yadda aka ciro bayanai daga bayanan burbushin halittu, haka nan akwai kasancewar lichens, mosses da wasu ferns a cikin waɗannan abubuwan tarihin.

A tsakanin nahiyoyin, zafin jikin baiyi kasa sosai ba kuma ya baiwa manyan tsirrai damar bunkasa wadanda zasu iya samar da manyan daji. Anan ne tsire-tsire masu zafi suka fara bayyana. Waɗannan tsire-tsire sune waɗanda suke da gyare-gyare waɗanda suka wajaba don tsira da matsanancin matakan zafin jiki.

Dangane da fauna, dabbobi masu shayarwa sun fi rinjaye. Ofaya daga cikin abubuwan fa'idodin wannan fauna shine sananne da megafauna. Wato, yawancin dabbobi suna da girma kuma suna da cikakken ikon tsayayya da ƙarancin yanayin zafi da ke wanzu a lokacin.

Bugu da kari, sauran kungiyoyin dabbobi sun ci gaba da kara bambancinsu da kuma canjin halitta don daidaitawa da sabbin muhalli. Wadannan dabbobi tsuntsaye ne, amphibians, da dabbobi masu rarrafe. Dabbar mammoth ita ce mafi ban sha'awa a wannan lokacin. Bayyanar ko kuma sun yi kama da giwayen da muka sani a yau. Suna da doguwar haushi masu kaifi kuma babban halayensu shine ƙwanƙwasawa da ke daidaita su zuwa sama. Ya danganta da yankin da za'a same su da yanayin zafinsu an rufe shi da ƙarami ko lessasa kuma suna da ɗabi'ar abinci mai ciyawa.

Amma ga mutane, yawancin jinsin magabata na Homo sapiens amma wannan ma ya bayyana. Babban halayyar sa shine ya kai matakin cigaban kwakwalwar ta.

Ina fatan cewa tare da wannan bayanin zaku iya koyo game da Pleistocene.


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